- Define animal physiology.
- Theorize why students should study animal physiology.
- Distinguish between a teleological and a mechanistic explanations.
- Define homeostasis and provide an example. Analyze why internal environment control is important.
- Define internal environment and compare ECF to ICF.
- Examine a typical negative feedback system and why it is important in homeostasis.
Contrast conformers vs. regulators.
- Describe the necessary functions of the cell or plasma membrane.
- Examine the structure of the phospholipid bilayer and how this leads to the fluid mosaic model.
- Provide three examples of lipids that can be found in the plasma membrane.
- Explain what is meant by membrane fluidity. Differentiate mechanisms to regulate fluidity, especially those needed to adjust to varying physical environments.
- Distinguish between two types of membrane proteins.
- List functions of membrane proteins.
- Review the structure of proteins, including the building blocks, the bonds, the four structures.
- Define ligand and distinguish factors resulting in ligand/receptor bonds.
- Distinguish between receptor specificity, saturation, affinity and modulation.
- Describe a gap junction and the types of molecules that might use it to pass between cells.
- Differentiate between autocrine, paracrine and endocrine communication.
- Theorize how molting and metamorphosis are controlled in insects.
- Describe the locations of hormone receptors. What kind of ligands bind to intracellular receptors? What kind of ligands bind to membrane receptors?
- Distinguish between how first and second messengers work.
- Provide 4 examples of second messengers in detail.
- Define target cell.
- Name the 3 domains of a transmembrane receptor. Describe their functions.
- Give an example of signal amplification and explain its significance.
- Summarize the steps involved when hormones bind with membrane receptors and lead to the production of second messengers.
- Define diffusion and give an example. Determine some influencing factors in the rate of diffusion.
- Describe osmosis and osmotic pressure. Describe the movement of water into/out of a tissue with a high osmotic pressure.
- Define aquaporins.
- Describe what happens to a RBC if placed in an isotonic solution, a hypotonic solution, or a hypertonic solution.
- Define osmolarity and tonicity.
- Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion to simple diffusion.
- Describe how ions cross the cell membrane and the main factor that determines the membrane’s permeability to that ion.
- Describe voltage, ligand and mechanically sensitive membrane channels.
- Define channel gating.
- Compare and contrast active transport to passive transport (facilitated diffusion).
- Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport.
- Define symport and antiport.
- Explain why an electrical potential exists across the cell membrane but not at a more distant location away from the membrane.
- Name the cells that have a resting membrane potential.
- Give the average resting membrane potential of a cell and indicate the meaning of the negative sign.
- Describe the equilibrium potential of a cell with .1M concentration of KCl inside of the cell and .01M concentration of KCl outside of the cell.
- Explain the difference between the resting membrane potential and the equilibrium potential when only potassium ions are involved.
- Describe the two main contributing factors to the membrane potential. Which equation includes these two factors when calculating an equilibrium potential?
- Describe the purpose of the Nernst equation.
- Describe how the potassium and sodium cations are distributed in a typical cell and which ion plays the biggest role in establishing the resting membrane potential.
- Describe the role of the Na/K pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential.
- Define histology.
- Name the four overall types of tissue.
- Name the general functions of epithelium and where is it found.
- Classify glands according to tissue-type.
- Describe the structure of tight junctions and theorize how this influences their functions.
- Portray the structure of the basement membrane.
- Describe the vascularity of epithelium.
- Describe the regeneration ability of epithelium.
- Describe the four properties that epithelial tissues share that affect molecule movement.
- Distinguish between transcellular and paracellular transport.
- Distinguish between tight and leaky epithelia.
- Describe factors affecting water movement across epithelium.