Objectives-1, BIO 3360


  1. Define animal physiology.
  2. Theorize why students should study animal physiology.
  3. Distinguish between a teleological and a mechanistic explanations.
  4. Define homeostasis and provide an example. Analyze why internal environment control is important.
  5. Define internal environment and compare ECF to ICF.
  6. Examine a typical negative feedback system and why it is important in homeostasis.
  7. Contrast conformers vs. regulators.


  1. Describe the necessary functions of the cell or plasma membrane.
  2. Examine the structure of the phospholipid bilayer and how this leads to the fluid mosaic model.
  3. Provide three examples of lipids that can be found in the plasma membrane.
  4. Explain what is meant by membrane fluidity. Differentiate mechanisms to regulate fluidity, especially those needed to adjust to varying physical environments.
  5. Distinguish between two types of membrane proteins.
  6. List functions of membrane proteins.


  1. Review the structure of proteins, including the building blocks, the bonds, the four structures.
  2. Define ligand and distinguish factors resulting in ligand/receptor bonds.
  3. Distinguish between receptor specificity, saturation, affinity and modulation.
  4. Describe a gap junction and the types of molecules that might use it to pass between cells.
  5. Differentiate between autocrine, paracrine and endocrine communication.
  6. Theorize how molting and metamorphosis are controlled in insects.
  7. Describe the locations of hormone receptors. What kind of ligands bind to intracellular receptors? What kind of ligands bind to membrane receptors?
  8. Distinguish between how first and second messengers work.
  9. Provide 4 examples of second messengers in detail.
  10. Define target cell.
  11. Name the 3 domains of a transmembrane receptor. Describe their functions.
  12. Give an example of signal amplification and explain its significance.
  13. Summarize the steps involved when hormones bind with membrane receptors and lead to the production of second messengers.



  1. Define diffusion and give an example. Determine some influencing factors in the rate of diffusion.
  2. Describe osmosis and osmotic pressure. Describe the movement of water into/out of a tissue with a high osmotic pressure.
  3. Define aquaporins.
  4. Describe what happens to a RBC if placed in an isotonic solution, a hypotonic solution, or a hypertonic solution.
  5. Define osmolarity and tonicity.
  6. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion to simple diffusion.
  7. Describe how ions cross the cell membrane and the main factor that determines the membrane’s permeability to that ion.
  8. Describe voltage, ligand and mechanically sensitive membrane channels.
  9. Define channel gating.
  10. Compare and contrast active transport to passive transport (facilitated diffusion).
  11. Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport.
  12. Define symport and antiport.


  1. Explain why an electrical potential exists across the cell membrane but not at a more distant location away from the membrane.
  2. Name the cells that have a resting membrane potential.
  3. Give the average resting membrane potential of a cell and indicate the meaning of the negative sign.
  4. Describe the equilibrium potential of a cell with .1M concentration of KCl inside of the cell and .01M concentration of KCl outside of the cell.
  5. Explain the difference between the resting membrane potential and the equilibrium potential when only potassium ions are involved.
  6. Describe the two main contributing factors to the membrane potential. Which equation includes these two factors when calculating an equilibrium potential?
  7. Describe the purpose of the Nernst equation.
  8. Describe how the potassium and sodium cations are distributed in a typical cell and which ion plays the biggest role in establishing the resting membrane potential.
  9. Describe the role of the Na/K pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential.


  1. Define histology.
  2. Name the four overall types of tissue.
  3. Name the general functions of epithelium and where is it found.
  4. Classify glands according to tissue-type.
  5. Describe the structure of tight junctions and theorize how this influences their functions.
  6. Portray the structure of the basement membrane.
  7. Describe the vascularity of epithelium.
  8. Describe the regeneration ability of epithelium.
  9. Describe the four properties that epithelial tissues share that affect molecule movement.
  10. Distinguish between transcellular and paracellular transport.
  11. Distinguish between tight and leaky epithelia.
  12. Describe factors affecting water movement across epithelium.