Objectives-4, BIO 3360


  1. Describe how unicellular organisms exchange gases and compare this to the mechanism(s) in multicellular organisms.
  2. Define diffusion, flux and convection.
  3. Name the two diffusion mechanisms and the two convection mechanisms in gas exchange found in air breathing animals and also in water breathing animals.
  4. Identify the value of barometric or atmospheric pressure at sea level and in Denver.
  5. Define partial pressure and provide the partial pressure values at sea level for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  6. Describe Henry’s law in words and in equation form.
  7. Compare oxygen solubility in air vs. aqueous solution.
  8. Compare oxygen solubility in very high temperatures vs. low temperatures.


  1. Define ventilation.
  2. Describe the principle behind oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the lungs or in body tissues.
  3. Name the lung structure in which gas exchange occurs in the air breathing animal (not counting birds).
  4. Describe the wall of the above structure and the pulmonary capillary.
  5. Describe inhalation = inspiration and exhalation =expiration according to the fundamentals of Boyle’s law.
  6. Describe elastic recoil and compliance.
  7. Define surface tension and explain how it affects lung compliance.
  8. Explain the purpose of surfactant.
  9. Define tidal volume, dead air volume and alveolar ventilation rate.
  10. Describe two methods of increasing alveolar ventilation rate. Explain which method would be more efficient.
  11. Explain the function of hemoglobin.


  1. Describe the unique anatomy of the bird’s respiratory system.
  2. Describe the advantages of parabronchi lined with air capillaries.
  3. Describe the advantages of avian air sacs.
  4. Describe ventilation in the reptile and frog.
  5. Indicate which group of vertebrates can respire exclusively cutaneously.
  6. Describe the tracheal system of the insect.


  1. Identify the issues that must be overcome in order to breathe water.
  2. Describe the ventilation in gill breathing fish.
  3. Compare an external to an internal gill.
  4. Identify the gill structure that increases surface area for gas exchange.
  5. Describe the countercurrent mechanism between water flow across the gills and blood flow. Point out the advantages of this arrangement.


  1. Name the molecule that transports oxygen in most vertebrates and some invertebrates.
  2. Describe the chemical structure of hemoglobin.
  3. Name the molecule that transports oxygen in molluscs and arthropods.
  4. Name the molecule that transports oxygen in marine annelids.
  5. Name the molecule that transports oxygen in hard-valved invertebrates and other marine worms.
  6. Analyze the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve and explain its significance.
  7. Describe the conditions that shift the oxygen-dissociation curve to the right, and to the left.
  8. Describe the Bohr effect to the oxygen-dissociation curve.
  9. Describe the Root effect.
  10. Explain how carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.
  11. Describe how carbon dioxide can turn into bicarbonate ions and visa verse.
  12. Explain the significance of the chloride shift.
  13. Analyze the carbon dioxide equilibrium curve and explain its significance.
  14. Explain the Haldane effect and what it means at the level of the respiratory surface as well as the systemic tissue.


  1. Compare and contrast acids and bases. Include pH ranges in your answer.
  2. Relate hydrogen ion concentration to pH values.
  3. Name the substances that water ionizes into.
  4. Define electrical neutrality, ion, and electrolyte.
  5. Describe the SID and indicate the relationship of the SID to acids and bases.
  6. List some mechanisms of regulating body pH.
  7. Define buffer.
  8. Differentiate between physiologic buffers and buffer systems (=chemical buffers).
  9. Describe how the respiratory and urinary systems can regulate pH values.
  10. Write the equations for the following: Bicarbonate Buffer System, Phosphate Buffer System, Protein Buffer System.
  11. Indicate what is meant by pushing the above equations to the right and to the left.


  1. Name the general structures involved in ionic and osmotic balance.
  2. Identify the needs of maintaining ionic and osmotic balance in a freshwater vs. a saltwater fish.
  3. Identify the main osmotic concern of terrestrial animals.
  4. Compare and contrast an ionoconformer vs. an ionoregulator.
  5. Compare and contrast an osmoconformer vs. an osmoregulator.
  6. Since all animals need water to live, identify some sources of this necessity.
  7. Describe regulatory volume increase.
  8. Describe regulatory volume decrease.
  9. Identify some mechanisms that waterproof the integument.
  10. Explain how digestive mucosa, gills, salt glands and rectal glands aid in ionic balance.
  11. Analyze the salt gland and explain how countercurrent multiplication leads to concentrating the salt excretions.


  1. Name the three forms of nitrogen that are excreted.
  2. Identify the source of nitrogen that must be excreted.
  3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages for the three forms of nitrogen excrement.
  4. Identify which animals use which form of nitrogen waste.
  5. Describe a unique variation used by the African lungfish as its environment changes.


  1. Describe the basic function of the mammalian kidney.
  2. Describe the following renal structures: renal cortex, renal medulla, pyramid, and renal pelvis.
  3. Name the functional microscopic unit of the kidney and describe its specific parts.
  4. Describe the glomerulus and the renal corpuscle.
  5. Describe the overall nephron physiology. Define urine.
  6. Describe glomerular filtration.
  7. Describe the factors that favor and oppose glomerular filtration.
  8. Describe active and passive tubular reabsorption and give examples.
  9. Discuss the significance of an increasingly concentrated interstitial fluid as you descend from the cortex to the medulla. Describe how this concentration is maintained.
  10. Describe the reabsorption and secretion that occur in all parts of the nephron.
  11. Describe the function of ADH.
  12. Describe the function of aldosterone.
  13. Describe the countercurrent multiplication mechanism of the kidneys. Include how the vasa recta is a part of this system.
  14. Describe the changes in urine volume and concentration as urine passes through the nephron and collecting tubule.