Lab Objectives, BIO 2320, Spring 2017_draft

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II

Dr. Clare Hays – Instructor

[email protected]; 303-615-0210; Science 2032

Books and Supplies:

  1. Required: Your textbook is for online or lecture, but doesn’t need to come to school with you: Seeley’s Anatomy & Physiology, Evergreen Ed.by Van Putte, Regan and Russo including access to Mc-Graw Hill Connect; 

  2.Required:  Your  lab manual needs to come to lab with you: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version, 13th Ed., Elaine N. Marieb

3. Required: BIO 2310 Dissecting Tools. Available in bookstore; includes a scalpel with             replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors;

4. Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect      your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request.

5. Familiarize yourself with the safety rules for lab and dissection protocols.

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should review the material and do the review sheets from your lab manual, as there are no open lab hours.  Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.

MASTERINGAANDP.COM:  Your lab manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab.  These resources and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual.  You will need to complete a registration process to use this site by clicking you are a student. Then, click Register for Self-Study Access Only and “Mastering is not required for my course.”  Enter your access code and click on your book.  Go to the Study Area, especially note the PAL section on anatomy.


Instructor Information:  Dr. Hays [email protected]

Office hours Tuesdays 8-1 in Science 2032 or on Teams


EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY: Attending lab is essential to success in the class, as it provides visual and tactile input to the structures you need to know as well as relationships of one structure to another.  You may earn extra credit points for attending labs throughout the semester as follows, provided that you are not more than 20 minutes late to any given lab:

Attending fewer than 3 labs: 0 points extra credit

Attending 3-4 labs: 5 points extra credit

Attending 5 labs: 10 points extra credit

Attending 6-7 labs: 15 points extra credit

Attending 8-9 labs: 20 points extra credit

Attending all 10 in-person labs: 25 points extra credit


JANUARY 19 – LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY AND ENDOCRINE ANATOMY

LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY:

Exercise 1: Glance at Figure 1.2 to understand anatomic terminology of the quadruped (dog & cat).   Use your own body and the human torso models to refresh on the basic organization of the body.  Know the following terms:

Anatomical Position (both human and quadruped), Superior, Inferior, Cranial, Caudal, Medial, Lateral, Superficial, Deep, Ventral, Anterior, Dorsal, Posterior, Proximal, Distal, Sagittal plane, Transverse plane, Frontal plane,  Thoracic cavity, Abdominal cavity, Pelvic cavity.

ENDOCRINE ANATOMY:

Exercise 27:  Figure 27.1 in the Marieb lab manual has human endocrine pictures and microscopic anatomy.

Exercise 3 Cat Dissection in back of lab manual:  Obtain a cat and open the ventral body cavity by cutting through linea alba on the abdomen and then using scissors to cut through the ribcage on the ventral side of the cat, but slightly off center as described in your lab manual.  Be careful not to remove the gonads and do not cut through blood vessels containing colored latex, without first checking with your instructor.  Additionally, a fatty greater omentum covers all of the abdominal visceral.  You may peel it out of your way, but do not remove it.

  1.  Observe the following endocrine glands of the cat: Thyroid, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal, Ovary, Testis.
  2.  Observe the pituitary gland and pineal gland (=body) on the preserved sheep brain.  See Figures 27.1 and 27.2. Sheep pineal picture in transverse fissure.  Sheep pineal picture from sagittal view.
  3.  Put your mink away as described by your instructor.  Clean your working area thoroughly.
  4.  Observe the microscopic anatomy on the Thyroid gland, Pancreas, Adrenal gland, Ovary, and Testis as described in Exercise 27 – Activity 2 of lab manual as well as Figures 42.2 and 43.6.

JANUARY 26 – BLOOD

Exercise 29: Complete the following activities using sheep blood or fake blood.

Activity 1: Observe the color and clarity of plasma after you conduct the hematocrit test (to be done later in this lab).

Activity 2: Observe one of each formed elements on a prepared human blood sample slide.  You must be able to identify erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and each of the granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) and each of the agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes).   Note:  All granulocytes and agranulocytes are types of leukocytes.

Activity 4: Conduct a Hematocrit using the microhematocrit reader card. Then, observe the color and clarity of plasma from Activity 1.  See if you can spot the layer of leukocytes found in the buffy coat between the plasma and the red blood cells.

Activity 5:  Determine the approximate hemoglobin concentration of the blood sample using the Tallquist method.

Activity 7:  Obtain an unknown blood sample and conduct the blood typing experiment to determine its ABO and Rh factor.

FEBRUARY 2 – ANATOMY OF THE HEART

Exercise 30:  Use Figures 30.2, 30.3, 30.4, 30.7, 30.8 for your heart anatomy.

Observe the sheep heart which has been cut in a frontal section. You are responsible for the following structures:

Visceral pericardium (epicardium), myocardium, endocardium, coronary blood vessels, left and right atria, left and right ventricles, auricles, pulmonary trunk, aorta, aortic semilunar valve, pulmonary veins, superior and inferior vena cavae, right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid), pulmonary semilunar valve, interventricular septum, papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, and left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid).

Mediastinum, pericardial sac, and pericardial cavity are best observed on your cat. Follow instructions by your instructor.

Observe the microscopic anatomy of cardiac muscle as described in Exercise 30 – Activity 4 and Figure 30.6.

Here is a good heart overview video made by Sophie, a previous TA.

FEBRUARY 8-10  LAB EXAM ONE  You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday Feb 8 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday Feb 10.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives.  I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read Exam Directions:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left unless it is a heart chamber.
  3. You will need to specify artery or vein unless that word is given in the question.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Feb 10 will have a 10% deduction per day late.

FEBRUARY 17, 24 – BLOOD VESSELS

Exercise 4 Cat Dissection: a) Dissect your cat as described in Dissection Exercise 4 in back of lab manual. You are responsible for the following blood vessels:

Vessels Cranial to Diaphragm:  Aorta, Coronary arteries, superior vena cava (precava), inferior vena cava (postcava), pulmonary trunk (arteries), pulmonary veins.

Azygos vein.

Brachiocephalic veins, external jugular veins, subclavian veins, axillary veins, brachial veins, cephalic veins.

Brachiocephalic artery, left subclavian artery, right subclavian artery, common carotid arteries, external carotid arteries, lingual arteries, vertebral arteries, axillary arteries, subscapular arteries, brachial arteries. (note:  both common carotids come off of the brachiocephalic artery in cats, but in humans, the left common carotid actually comes off of the aortic arch)

Vessels Caudal to Diaphragm:  Hepatic veins, adrenolumbar veins, renal veins, testicular or ovarian veins, iliolumbar veins, common iliac veins, internal iliac veins, external iliac veins, femoral vein, great saphenous vein, popliteal vein.

Hepatic portal vein, gastrosplenic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein. (These vessels are prepared with yellow dye.)

Aorta, celiac trunk, left gastric artery, hepatic artery, splenic artery, superior mesenteric artery, adrenolumbar arteries, renal arteries, testicular or ovarian arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, iliolumbar arteries, external iliac arteries (note:  cats do not have a common iliac artery as humans do), internal iliac arteries, femoral artery, saphenous artery, popliteal artery.

This video shows human and cat vessels.

MARCH 1 – CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY (Both Exercises 31 and 33)

Exercise 31:  Understand what is recorded with an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) and where leads are placed for a Lead II EKG.  On the Lead II EKG, identify the P wave, QRS complex, and the T wave.  Understand what events are taking place during these 3 recognizable waves.  Observe abnormal EKGs and the important information that can be gleaned on heart pathology from these.  However, you will only be tested on normal EKGs.

INTERPRETATION OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM: The P wave represents atrial depolarization and the QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. The T wave represents ventricular repolarization. Atrial repolarization is not visible, as it occurs during the dominant QRS complex.

Exercise 33: Complete the following activities for heart sounds, blood pressure and pulse determinations.

Activity 1: Complete Auscultating Heart Sounds.

Activity 2:  Palpate Superficial Pulse Points.

Activity 4:  Taking an Apical Pulse.

Activity 5: Use a sphygmomanometer to measure arterial blood pressure.

Activity 6: Estimate your venous pressure, both at rest and while performing the Valsalva maneuver.

Activity 7: Observe the effect of posture, exercise and ice water on blood pressure and heart rate.

Activity 8: Observe the effect of local chemical and physical factors on skin color.

MARCH 7-9  LAB EXAM TWO You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday Mar 7 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday March 9.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives.  I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read Exam Directions:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left, but you do need to specify artery or vein unless it is given in the question.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Mar 9 will have a 10% deduction per day late.

MARCH 17 – ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS

Exercise 36: Examine a microscopic section of lung tissue as described on p. 548.

Exercise 6 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Cat Dissection Exercise 6. You are responsible for:

External nares, Oral cavity, oropharynx (oral pharynx), trachea, larynx, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, hyoid bone, vagus nerve, primary bronchi, pleural cavities, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, diaphragm, phrenic nerve, and lungs.

Exercise 7 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Dissection Exercise 7 and Exercise 38. You are responsible for:

Parotid salivary gland, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, tongue papillae, frenulum of tongue, esophagus, parietal peritoneum, liver, greater omentum, gall bladder, stomach [cardia, fundus, body, pylorus], greater and lesser curvature of stomach, lesser omentum, pancreas, spleen, common bile duct, small intestine [duodenum, jejunum, ileum], mesentery proper, cecum, colon [ascending, transverse, descending], rectum, anus, and visceral peritoneum.

Observe microscopic sections of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, colon and taste buds.

RESPIRATORY ANATOMY:

Exercise 36: Complete histology and mink respiratory dissection.  Chapter 6 of your optional Mink manual has respiratory anatomy.

  1. Examine a microscopic section of lung tissue.  See Figure 36.7.
  2. Exercise 6 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Cat Dissection Exercise 6. You are responsible for:External nares, Oral cavity, oropharynx (oral pharynx), trachea, larynx, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, hyoid bone, vagus nerve, primary bronchi, pleural cavities, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, diaphragm, phrenic nerve, and lungs.

DIGESTIVE ANATOMY:

Exercise 38:  Complete histology and mink digestive dissection.  Chapter 4 of your optional Mink manual has digestive anatomy.

  1.  Observe microscopic sections of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, colon and taste buds.  See Figures 38.6, 38.9, 38.16, 26.3, 27.3c.
  2. Exercise 7 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Dissection Exercise 7. You are responsible for:Parotid salivary gland, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, tongue papillae, frenulum of tongue, esophagus, parietal peritoneum, liver, greater omentum, gall bladder, stomach [cardia, fundus, body, pylorus], greater and lesser curvature of stomach, lesser omentum, pancreas, spleen, common bile duct, small intestine [duodenum, jejunum, ileum], mesentery proper, cecum, colon [ascending, transverse, descending], rectum, anus, and visceral peritoneum.

MARCH 29 – Exercises 37, 45:  No on-campus meeting. Use this time at home to complete 4 required virtual labs on McGraw Hill Connect.  There will be test questions from these labs on Lab Exam 3.  You may do the labs as many times as you wish, and only your BEST score will be delivered to your instructor.

1. Virtual Lab Tutorial. 10 points possible.  Due by May 11 at 11:59 pm

2. Mechanism of Breathing. 10 points possible.  Due by May 11 at 11:59 pm.  Here are some study notes from this lab to prepare for lab exam 3: Virtual Lab Note Mechanism of Breathing

3. Pulmonary Function Tests. 10 points possible.  Due by May 11 at 11:59 pm.  Here are some study notes from this lab to prepare for lab exam 3: Virtual Lab Pulmonary Function

4. Human Genetics: Chromosome Inheritance during Meiosis. 10 points possible.  Due by May 11 at 11:59 pm.  Here are some study notes from this lab to prepare for lab exam 3: Virtual Lab Notes Genetics and Meiosis

APRIL 5 – RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Exercise 37:  Complete the following physiology activities.

Activity 2: Auscultating Respiratory Sounds using a stethoscope.

Activity 3: Measuring Respiratory Volumes using a Non-Recording Wet Spirometer

One person from each group should be the subject and complete #1-7 in your lab manual.  Measurements should be recorded for the following

  • Respiratory Rate (RR)
  • Tidal Volume (TV)
  • Minute Respiratory Volume (TV X RR)
  • Vital Capacity (VC)
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)  Use the calculation IRV = VC – (TV + ERV)

Activity 6: Complete this activity without using a spirometer.  Determine the main regulator of breathing.

Review the Pulmonary Function Test Virtual Lab Terms

APRIL 14 – ANATOMY OF URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

Exercise 40:

a) Observe the following structures on a cat kidney: Renal capsule, cortex, medulla, medullary pyramids, and renal pelvis.

b) Dissect your cat as described on Cat Dissection Exercise 8. You are responsible for: Kidneys, hilus, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Exercise 9 Cat Dissection: You are responsible for the anatomy of BOTH male and female cats. Dissect as described on Dissection Exercise 9 and know the following:

Penis, scrotum, testes, spermatic cord, ductus deferens (vas deferens), inguinal canal, prostate gland.

Uterus (uterine body & 2 uterine horns), uterine tube (fallopian tube), ovary, vagina, cervix, and vulva.

c) Observe the microscopic anatomy of the ovary and testis.  Refer to Figures 42.2 and 43.6.

APRIL 19 – URINALYSIS & REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

Exercise 41:  Analyze a urine sample from your own urine and from an unknown provided.  Interpret your results.

Activity 1: Complete as much of the Urinalysis Results form as possible using information derived from observation, reagent strips, and the refractometer.

Activity 2:  Complete a sediment analysis on your own urine as described.

A one-hour film on reproduction, Miracle of Life, may be viewed at home.  There will be simple exam questions on the film (meaning watch it, but no need to take notes). Here is a link to the film:  https://archive.org/details/NOVATheMiracleOfLife

APRIL 25 – 27  LAB EXAM THREE You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday Apr 25 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday April 27.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives.  I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read Exam Directions:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Apr 27 will have a 10% deduction per day late.