Lab Objectives, BIO 2310, Fall 2017_Draft

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Laboratory Objectives

Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, SI 2032; 303-615-0777, e-mail – [email protected], Course Website URL http://sites.msudenver.edu/haysc

REQUIRED:

  • Books and Supplies:
    1. Required: Your textbook is for lecture, but doesn’t need to come to school with you: Seeley’s Anatomy & Physiology, 13th Ed.by Van Putte, Regan and Russo including access to Mc-Graw Hill Connect; 

      2.Required:  Your  lab manual needs to come to lab with you: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version, 13th Ed., Elaine N. Marieb

 

3. Required: BIO 2310 Dissecting Tools. Available in bookstore; includes a scalpel with             replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors;

4. Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect      your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request.

5. Familiarize yourself with the safety rules for lab and dissection protocols.

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should review the material and do the review sheets from your lab manual, as there are no open lab hours.  Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.

EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY: Attending lab is essential to success in the class, as it provides visual and tactile input to the structures you need to know as well as relationships of one structure to another.  You may earn extra credit points for attending labs throughout the semester as follows, provided that you are not more than 20 minutes late to any given lab:

Attending fewer than 3 labs: 0 points extra credit

Attending 3-4 labs: 5 points extra credit

Attending 5 labs: 10 points extra credit

Attending 6-7 labs: 15 points extra credit

Attending 8-9 labs: 20 points extra credit

Attending all 10 in-person labs: 25 points extra credit


MASTERINGAANDP.COM:  Your lab manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab.  These resources and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual.  You will need to complete a registration process to use this site by clicking you are a student. Then, click Register for Self-Study Access Only and “Mastering is not required for my course.”  Enter your access code and click on your book.  Go to the Study Area, especially note the PAL section on anatomy.

WEEK ONE AUGUST 23 – HISTOLOGY

Exercise 3 in Lab Manual:  Review the use and care of the microscope.

Exercise 6 in Lab Manual:  Observe the following tissue types:

Epithelium

  1. Identify: Simple squamous epithelium and Simple cuboidal epithelium on your kidney slide.
  2. Identify: Simple columnar epithelium on your stomach or jejunum (small intestine) slide.
  3. Identify: Stratified squamous epithelium on your palatine tonsil slide.
  4. Identify: Transitional epithelium on your urinary bladder slide or on a slide from your instructor.
  5. Identify: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium on your trachea slide or on a slide from your instructor. Note the cilia.

Connective tissue

  1. Identify: Areolar (loose) connective tissue.
  2. Identify: Adipose tissue.
  3. Identify: Dense (or fibrous) regular connective tissue (slide says “white fibrous connective tissue”).
  4. Identify: Hyaline cartilage.
  5. Identify: Bone on your compact bone slide.

Nervous tissue

  1. Identify: Nervous tissue on your cerebral cortex slide or on a multipolar neuron slide from your instructor.

Muscle tissue

  1. Identify: Skeletal muscle.
  2. Identify: Cardiac muscle.
  3. Identify: Smooth muscle.

WEEKS TWO Through FOUR – AUGUST 30, SEPTEMBER 6, SEPTEMBER 13: SKELETAL SYSTEM (ANATOMY) 

Recommended time schedule: Week 2 – Through the skull; Week 3 – through the upper extremity; Week 4 – finish and review.

Exercise 8:  Please refer to Table 8.1 in lab manual as needed for bony features definitions.

Exercise 9: AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:

AXIAL SKELETON: SKULL

CRANIAL BONES: (Note:  Terms in all capital letters are the bones and terms following them are features on that bone. Numbers indicate the number of each bone that you have, and terms in parentheses are acceptable synonyms.)

FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen (or notch), Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, TEMPORAL (2), Squamous suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External auditory (acoustic) meatus (canal), Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal auditory (acoustic) meatus (canal), OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoid suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures, Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina or canals, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Foramen lacerum, Foramen spinosum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plate with olfactory (cribriform) foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and middle nasal conchae (These nasal conchae, along with inferior nasal conchae make up the “turbinates.”).

FACIAL BONES:

MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle (Condylar process), Coronoid process, Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar processes, Mandibular symphysis, MAXILLA (2), Alveolar processes, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE (2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Nasolacrimal canals for ducts (Lacrimal fossa), NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2).

HYOID BONE.

Frontal sinus, Ethmoidal sinuses, Sphenoidal sinus, Maxillary sinus.

Observe the fontanelles (soft spots) on the fetal skeleton.

AXIAL SKELETON: VERTEBRAE, STERNUM and RIBS:

TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes, Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes with smooth articular surfaces called facets, Intervertebral foramina, Intervertebral discs.

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), atlas, axis, odontoid process (= dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (which is one bone made of 5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (which is one bone made of 3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae).

STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, Sternal angle.

RIBS, Head, Tubercle (with its articular facet), Costal cartilage.

Exercise 10: APPENDICULAR SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:

APPENDICULAR SKELETON: PECTORAL GIRDLE

CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion (Acromion process), Coracoid process, Glenoid fossa (cavity), Scapular spine, Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular fossa.

APPENDICULAR SKELETON: PECTORAL APPENDAGE

HUMERUS, Head, Greater and lesser tubercles, Intertubercular (bicipital) groove (sulcus), Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum, Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head, Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon (Olecranon process), Semilunar (trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

APPENDICULAR SKELETON: PELVIC GIRDLE

OS COXA (Coxal bone when 3 parts are fused), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest, Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Posterior inferior iliac spine, Iliac fossa, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser and greater sciatic notches, Ischial ramus, PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Pubic ramus, Acetabulum.

APPENDICULAR SKELETON: PELVIC APPENDAGE

FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

WEEK FIVE – SEPTEMBER 10: LAB EXAM ONE  You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday Feb 15 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday February 17.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives. I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read directions on the exams:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Feb 17 will have a 10% deduction per day late.

WEEKS SIX Through EIGHT – SEPCTEMBER 27, OCTOBER 4, OCTOBER 11: MUSCULAR SYSTEM (ANATOMY)

Glance at Fig. 1.2, in Exercise 1, to understand anatomic terminology of the quadruped (dog or cat). Review Exercise 6 in the Marieb Lab Manual for microscopic skeletal muscle tissue and Figure 14.3 for three parts of the muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation).  Human muscles are in Exercise 13.

Recommended time schedule: Week 6 – Review a microscope slide of skeletal muscle tissue.   Then, dissect cat at least through infraspinatus on the list that follows; Week 7 – Try to finish cat muscles so that you can review the following week; Week 8 – Review cat muscles, human model muscles and review the muscle twitch.

Exercise 1 in Cat Dissection in back of lab manual. There are enough cats so that every 4 people may have one cat. More than 4 people per cat makes work difficult. The cats
may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described in your manual, but
only dissect one side of the cat.  Be cautious with sharp tools.  Put your cat away as described by your instructor when your dissection is complete. Clean your working area thoroughly. Here is a great website with nice photographs of cat muscles, plus the PAL site at masteringaandp.com through your lab manual (if you have an access code) is awesome.

Cat Dissection 1

Cat Dissection 2

Why do we dissect? With all of the great technology tools, like 3-d imaging, why do we dissect in lab?  The physical act of dissection is an extremely effective learning tool in contrast with “virtual dissections” available in computer programs.   Dissection is the best way to provide a tactile sense of body tissues.  In fact the word “anatomy” comes from Greek “to dissect” or “cut up.”  Currently, even with virtual reality headsets, nothing can reproduce the learning of anatomy through your actual tactile sense (in addition to other senses).  This experience will help you touch, visualize, and separate tissues in order to learn them.  Most A&P students are pursuing careers in healthcare.  At some point, this experience in dissection will help in the diagnosis and/or treatment of your patients.   For example, it is how we know that muscle won’t hold stitches well but tendons will.  Or, if you are a first responder at a car wreck at night, you may only have your sense of touch to immediately decide what to do. 

Why do we dissect cats? Although many students are excited about the dissections, there are still several questions that arise when it comes to the cats. There are several reasons why this choice of dissection animal has been made.  We do not have the space, money, nor supply of human cadavers to dissect.  MSU Denver offers an upper division anatomy course to dissect a human cadaver, called Advanced Human Cadaver Anatomy.  We dissect cats in A&P because once you understand that a cat’s anatomical position is on all four feet, their anatomy is very similar to that of humans.  After you learn the structures on the cat, we offer cadaver “tours” towards the end of the semester, to make that transition to the human anatomy.  The question of the ethics of using cats for medical science dissection and learning can and should be raised.  The ethical argument against the use of cats would be stronger if cats were bred specifically to be killed for dissection.  However, the cats we use are the product of uncontrolled reproduction of pets.  The surpluses wind up at the animal shelter and if not adopted, are euthanized.    It is clear that using these animals, which have already been euthanized, yields at least one positive outcome of their deaths, one of advancing the teaching of medical science.  Until the pet population explosion is under control and there is no surplus of euthanized cats, it would seem that a constructive use of a social tragedy is to be encouraged.

You are responsible for the following structures which follow the precise order in your lab manual:

Cutaneous maximus (not in humans), Platysma, Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Pectoantebrachialis (not in humans), Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.

Trapezius group, Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus dorsi, Serratus ventralis (anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus.

Triceps brachii (lateral, medial, long heads), Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis group, Extensor digitorum communis, Extensor digitorum lateralis (not in humans), Extensor carpi ulnaris, Biceps brachii, Epitrochlearis (not in humans), Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus (variable in humans – some don’t have it), Flexor carpi ulnaris.

Fascia lata, Sartorius, Tensor fasciae lata, Gluteus medius, Gluteus maximus (small in cats), Caudofemoralis (not in humans), Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneus (Fibularis) muscles, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Quadriceps – Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, Gracilis, Adductor femoris (This is adductor magnus and brevis combined in humans), Adductor longus, Plantaris, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus, External intercostals, Internal intercostals (intercostals are not in lab manual dissection, but refer to Exercise 13, Table 13.4 for human description and it should be easy to locate).

Human Model Arm Muscles: Deltoid,  Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Biceps brachii, Triceps brachii (lateral, medial and long heads).

Human Model Leg Muscles: Gluteus maximus, Sartorius, Quadriceps femoris, Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius.

WEEK NINE – OCTOBER 18:  LAB EXAM TWO You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday March 14 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday March 16.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives. I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read directions on the exams:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Mar 16 will have a 10% deduction per day late.

WEEK TEN – OCTOBER 25 –AT HOME: MUSCULAR ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY (OR PHYSIOGRIP COMPUTERIZED EXPERIMENT)

Use this time to complete the review sheet assignment which consists of completing 1. the Review Sheet in your Marieb Laboratory Manual “Exercise 13 Review Sheet: Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System” found here: (Gross Anatomy ) PLUS 2. the sheet on Skeletal Muscle Physiology found here: (Skeletal Muscle Review Sheet)  You may do these review sheets at home. The two review exercises are due on your very next lab period when we dissect the brain.  You may hand these in to me during lab, or scan/photograph them and submit them electronically (by Nov 1 at 11:59 at the latest).  You will lose 5 points per day that they are submitted late.  10 points are possible for complete and accurate answers of each review exercise for a total of 20 points.

WEEK ELEVEN – NOVEMBER 1: ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES

Exercise 15: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.  See Figure 15.2.

SHEEP BRAIN:

Exercise 17: Refer to Exercise 17, sheep brain pictures 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14.

Observe the sheep brain and find the following structures: Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater.

Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).

Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs (site where olfactory nerve from nose synapses), optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic tracts, hypothalamus (including the infundibulum and mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. (Note, cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX and X are often difficult to find or missing on some of the brains.)

Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third ventricle, thalamus (interthalamic adhesion), hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.

WEEK TWELVE – NOVEMBER 8: PERIPHERAL NERVES of the CAT AND HUMAN REFLEXES

 PERIPHERAL NERVES of the CAT:

Exercise 2 Cat Dissection in back of lab manual: Dissect your cat as described. Know all of
the nerves mentioned of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses: Musculocutaneous
nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve,
Sciatic nerve, Tibial nerve and Common peroneal (fibular) nerve.

HUMAN REFLEXES:

Exercise 21: Study the Reflex Arc illustrated in Figure 21.1 in your Marieb Lab Manual.  Complete Activities 1-9, but omit the “Corneal
Reflex” and “Salivary Reflex”.

This includes the following somatic reflexes: Patellar reflex (including mental distraction, muscular activity and fatigue), Calcaneal tendon or ankle-jerk reflex, Crossed-extensor reflex, Plantar reflex (normal and Babinski’s sign), Gag reflex.  It also includes the following autonomic reflexes: Pupillary reflex (direct = ipsilateral response and indirect = consensual response), Ciliospinal reflex.  Last, compare reaction time of an intrinsic reflex (patellar reflex) and a learned reflex (ruler catching) by completing Activity 9.

WEEK THIRTEEN – NOVEMBER 15: SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY

GENERAL SENSATION:

Exercise 22: Complete Activity 2 on Two-Point Threshold, Activity 3 on Testing
Tactile Localization, and Activity 4 on Adaptation of Touch Receptors.

VISION:

Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments, Activities 1-7.  This includes:  Demonstrating blind spot, Determining near point of accommodation, Visual acuity with Snellen eye chart, Testing for astigmatism, Testing for color blindness with Ishihara color plates, Testing for depth perception, Pupillary light reflex, Accommodation pupillary reflex, and Convergence reflex.

HEARING:

Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in Activity 4, [excluding audiometry testing].  This includes: Acuity test, Sound localization, Frequency range of hearing, Weber test, and Rinne test.

OLFACTION & TASTE:

Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Activity 3 on Stimulating Taste Buds,
Activity 4 on Olfactory Stimulation (on Taste), Activity 5 on Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Activity 6 on Olfactory Adaptation. Note:  Due to contagious respiratory diseases, these experiments may be done at home with ordinary kitchen spices and sugar.

WEEK FOURTEEN – NOVEMBER 22:  LAB EXAM THREE You do not come to lab this week, as the exam is on Canvas. The online lab test is primarily fill in the blank questions randomly selected from a test bank and spelling must be exact.  It may be found on MSU Denver Canvas. It opens Thursday April 25 at 12 am and closes at 11:59 pm on Saturday April 27.  The online tests have 25 questions at 2 points each, 30 minutes.  The exam will only test you on material from these laboratory objectives. I do put my eyes on everyone’s completed exams to double check the computer grading.

Read directions on the exams:

  1.  All answers for fill-in-the-blank questions are in lower case letters and must be spelled correctly.
  2. You never have to indicate right or left.

Any lab exam not taken by 11:59 pm on Saturday Apr 27 will have a 10% deduction per day late.