HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Laboratory Objectives
Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, SI 2032; 303-556-8485, e-mail – [email protected], URL http://sites.msudenver.edu/haysc
- Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, 12th Ed., Cat version, Elaine N. Marieb, R.N., Ph. D. Availabe at Auraria Book Center or at www.mypearsonstore.com
- BIO 2310 Dissecting Tools. Available in bookstore; includes a scalpel with replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors.
- Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request.
Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.
MASTERINGAANDP.COM : Your Laboratory Manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab. These resources and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual. You will need to complete a registration process to use this site by clicking you are a student. Then, click Register for Self-Study Access Only and “Mastering is not required for my course.” Enter your access code and click on your book. Go to the Study Area, especially note the PAL section on anatomy.
Upon completion of lab exercises, you should complete the corresponding review sheets. Although you will not be required to hand in these exercises, they help to emphasize key concepts and are invaluable in preparing for lab exams.
M/W AUGUST 21, 23; FRIDAY AUGUST 25 – HISTOLOGY
Exercise 3: Review the use and care of the microscope.
Exercise 6: a) Observe the following tissue types: Simple squamous epithelium, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple columnar epithelium, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Stratified squamous epithelium, Transitional epithelium, Areolar (loose) connective tissue, Adipose tissue, Dense (fibrous) regular connective tissue, Hyaline cartilage, Bone, Nervous tissue, Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle.
b) Note: Seeley textbook has some excellent histology pictures in chapter 4 as well as masteringaandp.com in the PAL section.
M/W AUGUST 28, 30, SEPTEMBER 6, 11, 13; FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 1,8,15 – SKELETAL SYSTEM (ANATOMY)
Monday Sept. 4 is Labor Day. Monday lab students should come to Wednesday’s lab or Friday at 8am lab. Alternately, you may review on your own at the Auraria Library where the bones are on reserve.
Recommended time schedule:
Week 2 – Through the skull,
Week 3 – through the upper extremity,
Week 4 – finish and review.
Exercise 8: Read in preparation of skeletal anatomy.
Exercise 9: AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:
Please refer to Table 8.1 as needed for bony features definitions
FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen (or notch), Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, TEMPORAL (2), Squamousal suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External auditory (=acoustic) meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal acoustic meatus, OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoid suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures, Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina or canals, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Foramen lacerum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plates with olfactory (=cribriform) foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and medial nasal conchae (turbinates).
MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle (=condylar process), Coronoid process, Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar margin, Mandibular symphysis, MAXILLA (2), Alveolar margin, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE (2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Lacrimal fossa, NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2).
Frontal sinus, Ethmoid sinuses, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus.
TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes, Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes, Intervertebral foramina, intervertebral discs, CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), atlas, axis, odontoid process (= dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (3-5 fused).
STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, Sternal angle, RIBS, Head, Tubercle, Costal cartilage.
Exercise 10: APPENDICULAR SKELETON:
PECTORAL GIRDLE: CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion process, Coracoid process, Glenoid fossa [cavity], Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular fossa.
PECTORAL APPENDAGE: HUMERUS, Head, Shaft, Greater and lesser tubercles, Intertubercular (bicipital) groove (=sulcus), Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum, Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head, Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon (process), Semilunar (=trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).
PELVIC GIRDLE: OS COXA (Coxal bone when 3 parts are fused), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest, Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Iliac fossa, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser and greater sciatic notches, PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Rami, Acetabulum.
PELVIC APPENDAGE: FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).
Exercise 9: Observe fontanels on the fetal skeleton.
M/W SEPTEMBER 18, 20; FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 22 – EXAM ONE
M/W SEPTEMBER 25, 27, OCTOBER 2,4, 9,11; FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 29, OCTOBER 6,13 – MUSCULAR SYSTEM (ANATOMY)
Glance at Fig. 1.2, page 4, to understand anatomic terminology of the quadriped (cat). Recommended time schedule:
Week 6 – Through infraspinatus,
Week 7 – through quadriceps,
Week 8 – finish and review.
Exercise 12: Observe a slide of skeletal muscle tissue.
Exercise 1 in Cat Dissection: p. 705: There are enough cats so that every 4 people
may have one cat. More than 4 people per cat makes work difficult. The cats
may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described in your manual, but
only dissect one side of the cat. (Another section will be dissecting the other half.) Put your cat away as described by your instructor when your dissection is complete. Clean your working area thoroughly. Here is a great website with nice photographs
of cat muscles, plus the PAL site at masteringaandp.com is awesome.
Why do we dissect? With all of the great technology tools, like 3-d imaging, why do we dissect in lab? The physical act of dissection is an extremely effective learning tool in contrast with “virtual dissections” available in computer programs. Dissection is the best way to provide a tactile sense of body tissues. In fact the word “anatomy” comes from Greek “to dissect” or “cut up.” Currently, even with virtual reality headsets, nothing can reproduce the learning of anatomy through your actual tactile sense (in addition to other senses). This experience will help you touch, visualize, and separate tissues in order to learn them. Most A&P students are pursuing careers in healthcare. At some point, this experience in dissection will help in the diagnosis and/or treatment of your patients. For example, it is how we know that muscle won’t hold stitches well but tendons will. Or, if you are a first responder at a car wreck at night, you may only have your sense of touch to immediately decide what to do.
Why do we dissect cats? Although many students are excited about the dissections, there are still several questions that arise when it comes to the cats. There are several reasons why this choice of dissection animal has been made. We do not have the space, money, nor supply of human cadavers to dissect. MSU Denver offers an upper division anatomy course to dissect a human cadaver, called Advanced Human Cadaver Anatomy. We dissect cats in A&P because once you understand that a cat’s anatomical position is on all four feet, their anatomy is very similar to that of humans. After you learn the structures on the cat, we offer cadaver “tours” towards the end of the semester, to make that transition to the human anatomy. The question of the ethics of using cats for medical science dissection and learning can and should be raised. The ethical argument against the use of cats would be stronger if cats were bred specifically to be killed for dissection. However, the cats we use are the product of uncontrolled reproduction of pets. The surpluses wind up at the animal shelter and if not adopted, are euthanized. It is clear that using these animals, which have already been euthanized, yields at least one positive outcome of their deaths, one of advancing the teaching of medical science. Until the pet population explosion is under control and there is no surplus of euthanized cats, it would seem that a constructive use of a social tragedy is to be encouraged.
You are responsible for the following structures:
Cutaneous maximus (not in humans), Platysma, Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Pectoantebrachialis (not in humans), Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.
Trapezius group, Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus dorsi, Serratus ventralis (anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus.
Triceps brachii (lateral, medial, long head), Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis group, Extensor digitorum communis, Extensor digitorum lateralis (not in humans), Extensor carpi ulnaris, Biceps brachii, Epitrochlearis (not in humans), Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris.
Fascia lata, Sartorius, Tensor fasciae latae, Gluteus medius, Gluteus maximus (small in cats), Caudofemoralis (not in humans), Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneus (=Fibularis) muscles, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Quadriceps – Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, Gracilis, Adductor femoris (=Adductor magnus and brevis in humans), Adductor longus, Plantaris, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus, External intercostals, Internal intercostals (intercostals are not in lab manual dissection, but refer to page 210, Table 13.3 for human description).
Muscular Physiology: You will also be expected to know the three phases of a muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation). See figure 14.3 in your lab manual
M/W OCTOBER 16, 18; FRIDAY OCTOBER 20 – EXAM TWO
M/W OCTOBER 23, 25; FRIDAY OCTOBER 27 – MUSCULAR ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY (OR PHYSIOGRIP COMPUTERIZED EXPERIMENT)
Use this time to complete the review sheet assignment which consists of completing 1. the Review Sheet in your Marieb Laboratory Manual “Exercise 13 Review Sheet: Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System” PLUS 2. the review sheet on Skeletal Muscle Physiology found here. (Skeletal Muscle Review Sheet) You may do these review sheets at home. The two review exercises are due on your very next lab period when we dissect the brain. 10 points are possible for complete and accurate answers of each review exercise for a total of 20 points.
M/W OCTOBER 30, NOVEMBER 1; FRIDAY NOVEMBER 3 – ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES
Exercise 15: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.
Exercise 17: Dissect the sheep brain as described starting on
p. 292. You are responsible for the following structures:
Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).
Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic tracts, hypothalamus (infundibulum, mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. (Note, cranial nerves IX and X are often difficult to find or missing on some of the brains.)
Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third ventricle, thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.
M/W NOVEMBER 6,8 ; FRIDAY NOVEMBER 10 – PERIPHERAL NERVES AND REFLEXES
Exercise 2 Cat Dissection: p. 723: Dissect your cat as described. Know all of
the nerves mentioned of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses: Musculocutaneous
nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve,
Sciatic nerve, Tibial nerve and Common peroneal (=Fibular) nerve.
Exercise 21: Complete Activities 1-9, but omit the “Corneal
Reflex” and “Salivary Reflex”.
M/W NOVEMBER 13, 15; NOVEMBER 17 – SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY
Exercise 22: Complete the exercises on Two-Point Threshold, Testing
Tactile Localization, and Adaptation of Touch Receptors.
Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments, Activities 1-7.
Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in Activity 4,[excluding audiometry]
Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Stimulation of
Taste Buds, Effect of Olfactory Stimulation on (on Taste), The Importance of Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Demonstrating Olfactory
M/W NOVEMBER 27, 29; FRIDAY DECEMBER 1 – EXAM THREE