Lab Objectives, BIO 2310, Spring 2016


Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, SI 2032; 303-556-8485, e-mail – [email protected], URL


  • Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, 11th Ed., Cat version, Elaine N. Marieb, R.N., Ph. D. Availabe at Auraria Book Center or at
  • BIO 2310 Dissecting Tools. Available in bookstore; includes a scalpel with replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors.
  • Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request.

Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.

MASTERINGAANDP.COM : Your Laboratory Manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab. Information about this website, , and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual. You will need to complete a registration process to use this site, but leave the course ID number blank. Especially note the excellent PAL sections. This is also the location of the Physioex Skeletal Muscle Physiology exercise.

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should complete the corresponding review sheets. Although you will not be required to hand in these exercises, they help to emphasize key concepts and are invaluable in preparing for lab exams.


Exercise 3: Review the use and care of the microscope.

Exercise 6: a) Observe the following tissue types: Simple squamous epithelium, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple columnar epithelium, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Stratified squamous epithelium, Transitional epithelium, Areolar (loose) connective tissue, Adipose tissue, Dense (fibrous) regular connective tissue, Hyaline cartilage, Bone, Nervous tissue, Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle.

b) Note: Seeley textbook has some excellent histology pictures in chapter 4 as well as in the PAL section.


Recommended time schedule:

Week 2 – Through the skull,

Week 3 – through the upper extremity,

Week 4 – finish and review.

Exercise 9: Read in preparation of skeletal anatomy.

Exercise 10: AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:

Please refer to Table 8.1 as needed for bony features definitions


FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen (or notch), Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, TEMPORAL (2), Squamousal suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External auditory (=acoustic) meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal acoustic meatus, OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoid suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures, Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina or canals, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Foramen lacerum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plates with olfactory (=cribriform) foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and medial nasal conchae (turbinates).


MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle (=condylar process), Coronoid process, Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar margin, Mandibular symphysis, MAXILLA (2), Alveolar margin, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE (2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Lacrimal fossa, NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2).


Frontal sinus, Ethmoid sinuses, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus.

TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes, Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes, Intervertebral foramina, intervertebral discs, CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), atlas, axis, odontoid process (= dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (3-5 fused).

STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, Sternal angle, RIBS, Head, Tubercle, Costal cartilage.


PECTORAL GIRDLE: CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion process, Coracoid process, Glenoid fossa [cavity], Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular fossa.

PECTORAL APPENDAGE: HUMERUS, Head, Shaft, Greater and lesser tubercles, Intertubercular (bicipital) groove (=sulcus), Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum, Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head, Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon (process), Semilunar (=trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

PELVIC GIRDLE: OS COXA (Coxal bone when 3 parts are fused), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest, Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Iliac fossa, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser and greater sciatic notches, PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Rami, Acetabulum.

PELVIC APPENDAGE: FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

Exercise 12: Observe fontanels on the fetal skeleton.



Glance at Fig. 1.2, page 4, to understand anatomic terminology of the quadriped (cat). Recommended time schedule:

Week 6 – Through infraspinatus,

Week 7 – through quadriceps,

Week 8 – finish and review.

Exercise 12: Observe a slide of skeletal muscle tissue.

Exercise 1 in Cat Dissection: p. 705: There are enough cats so that every 4 people
may have one cat. More than 4 people per cat makes work difficult. The cats
may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described in your manual, but
only dissect one side of the cat. (Another section will be dissecting the other half.) Put your cat away as described by your instructor when your dissection is complete. Clean your working area thoroughly. Here is a great website with nice photographs
of cat muscles, plus the PAL site at is awesome.

Why do we dissect? With all of the great technology tools, like 3-d imaging, why do we dissect in lab?  The physical act of dissection is an extremely effective learning tool in contrast with “virtual dissections” available in computer programs.   Dissection is the best way to provide a tactile sense of body tissues.  In fact the word “anatomy” comes from Greek “to dissect” or “cut up.”  Currently, even with virtual reality headsets, nothing can reproduce the learning of anatomy through your actual tactile sense (in addition to other senses).  This experience will help you touch, visualize, and separate tissues in order to learn them.  Most A&P students are pursuing careers in healthcare.  At some point, this experience in dissection will help in the diagnosis and/or treatment of your patients.   For example, it is how we know that muscle won’t hold stitches well but tendons will.  Or, if you are a first responder at a car wreck at night, you may only have your sense of touch to immediately decide what to do. 

Why do we dissect cats? Although many students are excited about the dissections, there are still several questions that arise when it comes to the cats. There are several reasons why this choice of dissection animal has been made.  We do not have the space, money, nor supply of human cadavers to dissect.  MSU Denver offers an upper division anatomy course to dissect a human cadaver, called Advanced Human Cadaver Anatomy.  We dissect cats in A&P because once you understand that a cat’s anatomical position is on all four feet, their anatomy is very similar to that of humans.  After you learn the structures on the cat, we offer cadaver “tours” towards the end of the semester, to make that transition to the human anatomy.  The question of the ethics of using cats for medical science dissection and learning can and should be raised.  The ethical argument against the use of cats would be stronger if cats were bred specifically to be killed for dissection.  However, the cats we use are the product of uncontrolled reproduction of pets.  The surpluses wind up at the animal shelter and if not adopted, are euthanized.    It is clear that using these animals, which have already been euthanized, yields at least one positive outcome of their deaths, one of advancing the teaching of medical science.  Until the pet population explosion is under control and there is no surplus of euthanized cats, it would seem that a constructive use of a social tragedy is to be encouraged.

You are responsible for the following structures:

Cutaneous maximus (not in humans), Platysma, Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Pectoantebrachialis, Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.

Trapezius group, Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus dorsi, Serratus ventralis (anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus.

Triceps brachii (lateral, medial, long head), Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis group, Extensor digitorum communis, Extensor digitorum lateralis (not in humans), Extensor carpi ulnaris, Biceps brachii, Epitrochlearis (not in humans), Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris.

Fascia lata, Sartorius, Tensor fasciae latae, Gluteus medius, Gluteus maximus (small in cats), Caudofemoralis (not in humans), Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneus (=Fibularis) muscles, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Quadriceps – Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, Gracilis, Adductor femoris (=Adductor magnus and brevis in humans), Adductor longus, Plantaris, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus, External intercostals, Internal intercostals (intercostals are not in lab manual dissection, but refer to page 210, Table 13.3 for human description).

Muscular Physiology: You will also be expected to know the three phases of a muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation). See figure 14.3 in your lab manual



Use this time to complete Physioex Exercise 2 in lab manual, the Physioex Skeletal Muscle Physiology Computer simulation. You may do this exercise at home. It is due on your very next lab period when we dissect the brain. Instructions for the exercise may be found in your lab manual. The computer exercise may also be found at www.mastering Upon completion, complete the review sheet online OR the one in your lab manual. 10 points are possible for complete and accurate completion of the review sheet.


Exercise 15: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.

Exercise 17: Dissect the sheep brain as described starting on
p. 292. You are responsible for the following structures:

Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).

Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic tracts, hypothalamus (infundibulum, mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. (Note, cranial nerves IX and X are often difficult to find or missing on some of the brains.)

Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third ventricle, thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.


Exercise 2 Cat Dissection: p. 723: Dissect your cat as described. Know all of
the nerves mentioned of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses: Musculocutaneous
nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve,
Sciatic nerve, Tibial nerve and Common peroneal (=Fibular) nerve.

Exercise 21: Complete Activities 1-9, but omit the “Corneal
Reflex” and “Salivary Reflex”.


Exercise 22: Complete the exercises on Two-Point Threshold, Testing
Tactile Localization, and Adaptation of Touch Receptors.

Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments, Activities 1-7.

Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in Activity 4,[excluding audiometry]

Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Stimulation of
Taste Buds, Effect of Olfactory Stimulation on (on Taste), The Importance of Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Demonstrating Olfactory