Lab Objectives BIO 2310 Tuesday/Thursday Sections Fall 2021

Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, SI 2032; 303-615-0777, e-mail – [email protected], URL

Books and Supplies:

  1. Required: Your textbook is for online or lecture, but doesn’t need to come to school with you: Seeley’s Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Ed.,by Van Putte, Regan and Russo including access to Mc-Graw Hill Connect;

  2.Required:  Your  lab manual needs to come to lab with you: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, 12th Ed., Elaine N. Marieb  

  1. Optional: Dissection Guide and Atlas to the Mink, by David Smith and Michael Schenk, Morton Publishing;

4. Required: BIO 2310 Dissecting Tools. Available in bookstore; includes a scalpel with             replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors;

5. Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect      your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request.

6. Familiarize yourself with the safety rules for lab and dissection protocols.

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should review the material and do the review sheets from your lab manual, as there are no open lab hours.  Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.

MASTERINGAANDP.COM:  Your lab manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab.  These resources and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual.  You will need to complete a registration process to use this site by clicking you are a student. Then, click Register for Self-Study Access Only and “Mastering is not required for my course.”  Enter your access code and click on your book.  Go to the Study Area, especially note the PAL section on anatomy.


Exercise 3:  Review the use and care of the microscope.

Exercise 6:  Observe the following tissue types:


  1. Identify: Simple squamous epithelium and Simple cuboidal epithelium on your kidney slide.
  2. Identify: Simple columnar epithelium on your stomach or jejunum (small intestine) slide.
  3. Identify: Stratified squamous epithelium on your palatine tonsil slide.
  4. Identify: Transitional epithelium on your urinary bladder slide or on a slide from your instructor.
  5. Identify: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium on your trachea slide or on a slide from your instructor. Note the cilia.

Connective tissue

  1. Identify: Areolar (loose) connective tissue.
  2. Identify: Adipose tissue.
  3. Identify: Dense (fibrous) regular connective tissue (slide says “white fibrous connective tissue”).
  4. Identify: Hyaline cartilage.
  5. Identify: Bone on your compact bone slide.

Nervous tissue

  1. Identify: Nervous tissue on your cerebral cortex slide or on a multipolar neuron slide from your instructor.

Muscle tissue

  1. Identify: Skeletal muscle.
  2. Identify: Cardiac muscle.
  3. Identify: Smooth muscle.


Recommended time schedule: Week 2 – Through the skull; Week 3 – through the upper extremity; Week 4 – finish and review.

Exercise 8:  Please refer to Table 8.1 in lab manual as needed for bony features definitions.

Exercise 9: AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:


CRANIAL BONES: (Note:  Terms in all capital letters are the bones and terms following them are features on that bone.)

FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen (or notch), Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, TEMPORAL (2), Squamous suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External auditory (=acoustic) meatus (=canal), Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal auditory (=acoustic) meatus (=canal), OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoid suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures, Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina or canals, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Foramen lacerum, Foramen spinosum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plates with olfactory (=cribriform) foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and middle nasal conchae (These nasal conchae, along with inferior nasal conchae make up the “turbinates.”).


MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle, Coronoid process, Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar processes or margins, Mandibular symphysis, MAXILLA (2), Alveolar processes or margins, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE (2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Nasolacrimal canals for ducts, NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2).


Frontal sinus, Ethmoidal sinuses, Sphenoidal sinus, Maxillary sinus.

Observe the fontanels (soft spots) on the fetal skeleton.


TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes, Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes with smooth articular surfaces called facets, Intervertebral foramina, intervertebral discs.

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), atlas, axis, odontoid process (= dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (3-5 fused).

STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, Sternal angle.

RIBS, Head, Tubercle, Costal cartilage.

Exercise 10: APPENDICULAR SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:


CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion process, Coracoid process, Glenoid fossa [cavity], Scapular spine, Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular fossa.


HUMERUS, Head, Shaft, Greater and lesser tubercles, Intertubercular (=bicipital) groove, Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum, Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head, Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon (process), Semilunar (=trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).


OS COXA (Coxal bone when 3 parts are fused), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest, Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Posterior inferior iliac spine, Iliac fossa, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser and greater sciatic notches, Ischial ramus, PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Pubic ramus, Acetabulum.


FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

SEPTEMBER 21,23 – EXAM ONE at 1:30 The exam will take about 30 minutes, and consists of 25 stations/questions and one minute per station.  You cannot return to any stations.  Spelling does not have to exact, but must be very close.


Exercise 1: Glance at Figure 1.2 to understand anatomic terminology of the quadriped (mink).  Alternately, glance at page 2 in a copy of the Mink Lab Manual to understand anatomic terminology of the quadriped (mink).   Mink muscles are in Chapter 3.

Review Exercise 6 in the Marieb Lab Manual for microscopic skeletal muscle tissue and Figure 14.3 for three parts of the muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation).  Human muscles are in Exercise 13.

Useful youtube mink dissection videos: (starting your dissection, fat and fascia removal) (trapezius & latissimus dorsi) (neck and arm) (thigh)

Recommended time schedule: Week 6 – Review a microscope slide of skeletal muscle tissue.   Then, dissect mink at least through infraspinatus on the list that follows; Week 7 – Try to finish mink muscles so that you can review the following week; Week 8 – Review mink muscles, human model muscles and review the muscle twitch.

Mink Dissection: There are enough mink so that every 3-4 people
may have one mink. The mink may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described by your instructor and with the help of the dissection photographs provided.  Put your mink away as described by your instructor when your dissection is complete. Clean your working area thoroughly.

Why do we dissect? With all of the great technology tools, like 3-d imaging, why do we dissect in lab?  The physical act of dissection is an extremely effective learning tool in contrast with “virtual dissections” available in computer programs.   Dissection is the best way to provide a tactile sense of body tissues.  In fact the word “anatomy” comes from Greek “to dissect” or “cut up.”  Currently, even with virtual reality headsets, nothing can reproduce the learning of anatomy through your actual tactile sense (in addition to other senses).  This experience will help you touch, visualize, and separate tissues in order to learn them.  Most A&P students are pursuing careers in healthcare.  At some point, this experience in dissection will help in the diagnosis and/or treatment of your patients.   For example, it is how we know that muscle won’t hold stitches well but tendons will.  Or, if you are a first responder at a car wreck at night, you may only have your sense of touch to immediately decide what to do. 
Why do we dissect mink? Although many students are excited about the dissections, there are still several questions that arise when it comes to the animals. There are several reasons why this choice of dissection animal has been made.  We do not have the space, money, nor supply of human cadavers to dissect.  MSU Denver offers an upper division anatomy course to dissect a human cadaver, called Advanced Human Cadaver Anatomy.  We dissect mink in A&P because once you understand that a mink’s anatomical position is on all four feet, their anatomy is very similar to that of humans.  After you learn the structures on the mink, we offer cadaver “tours” towards the end of the semester, to make that transition to the human anatomy.  The question of the ethics of using animals for medical science dissection and learning can and should be raised.  The mink are farm-raised for their fur.  Following euthanasia, their bodies are simply discarded, as they are of no use to the farmer.  We purchase the bodies, so that students may at least benefit from studying their anatomy. 

You are responsible for the following mink structures:

Neck, Chest and Abdominal Muscles: Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.

Mink dissection photographs of Neck, Chest, Abdomen: Neck and torso-site 4

Shoulder and Arm Muscles: Trapezius group (note:  “group” means that you do not have to use the prefixes of clavo-, spino-, acromio-), Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus dorsi, Serratus ventralis (=anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group (you do not need to distinguish thoracic, cervical or capitis parts of rhomboideus), Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus.Triceps brachii (lateral, medial, long head), Brachialis, Dorsoepitrochlearis (usually not separate from latissimus dorsi in humans and therefore usually not present in humans), Biceps brachii.

Mink dissection photographs of Shoulder and Arm: Mink muscles arm

Hip and Thigh Muscles: Fascia latae and Tensor fasciae latae, Gluteus medius, Gluteus maximus (superficial but small in mink), Hamstrings including: a. Biceps femoris, b. Semitendinosus, c. Semimembranosus, Sartorius, Quadriceps femoris including: a.Vastus medialis, b. Rectus femoris, c. Vastus lateralis, d. Vastus intermedius (directly deep to rectus femoris), Gracilis, Adductor femoris (=Adductor magnus and brevis in humans), Adductor longus, Gastrocnemius.

Mink dissection photographs of Hip and Thigh:  Mink anatomy leg 2310-site 3

Human Model Arm Muscles: Deltoid,  Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Biceps brachii, Brachialis, Triceps brachii (lateral, medial and long heads),Wrist and Digit Extensors, Wrist and Digit Flexors.

Human Model Leg Muscles: Gluteus maximus, Tensor Fasciae Latae, Sartorius, Gracilis, Quadriceps femoris (3/4 heads:  Rectus femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis), Hamstrings (Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus), Gastrocnemius, Tibialis anterior.

OCTOBER 19,21 – EXAM TWO at 1:30 The muscle exam will take about 30 minutes, and consists of 25 stations/questions and one minute per station.  Both mink specimens and human models will be used on the exam.  You cannot return to any stations.  Spelling does not have to exact, but must be very close.


Use this time to complete the review sheet assignment which consists of completing 1. the Review Sheet in your abbreviated Marieb Laboratory Manual “Exercise 13 Review Sheet: Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System” found here: (Review Sheet Muscles ) PLUS 2. the review sheet on Skeletal Muscle Physiology found here: (Skeletal Muscle Review Sheet)  You may do these review sheets at home. The two review exercises are due on your very next lab period when we dissect the brain.  You may hand these in to me during lab, or scan/photograph them and submit them electronically.  You will lose 5 points per day that they are submitted late.  10 points are possible for complete and accurate answers of each review exercise for a total of 20 points.


Exercise 15: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.  See Figure 15.2.


Exercise 17: Refer to Exercise 17, sheep brain pictures 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14.

Observe the sheep brain and find the following structures: Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater.

Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).

Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs (site where olfactory nerve from nose synapses), optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic tracts, hypothalamus (infundibulum, mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. (Note, cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX and X are often difficult to find or missing on some of the brains.)

Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third ventricle, thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.



The optional Dissection Guide and Atlas to the Mink by David Smith and Michael Schenk has mink muscles in Chapter 8.

Observe the following mink nerves of the Brachial Plexus: Musculocutaneous
nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve. Mink arm nerves.

Observe the following mink nerves of the Lumbosacral plexus:  Femoral nerve with its superficial  saphenous nerve branch, Sciatic nerve. Mink lateral right thighMink medial right thigh.


Exercise 21: Study the Reflex Arc illustrated in Figure 21.1 in your Marieb Lab Manual.  Complete Activities 1-9, but omit the “Corneal
Reflex” and “Salivary Reflex”.

This includes the following somatic reflexes: Patellar reflex (including mental distraction, muscular activity and fatigue), Calcaneal tendon or ankle-jerk reflex, Crossed-extensor reflex, Plantar reflex (normal and Babinski’s sign), Gag reflex.  It also includes the following autonomic reflexes: Pupillary reflex (direct = ipsilateral response and indirect = consensual response), Ciliospinal reflex.  Last, compare reaction time of an intrinsic reflex (patellar reflex) and a learned reflex (ruler catching) by completing Activity 9.



Exercise 22: Complete Activity 2 on Two-Point Threshold, Activity 3 on Testing
Tactile Localization, and Activity 4 on Adaptation of Touch Receptors.


Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments, Activities 1-7.  This includes:  Demonstrating blind spot, Determining near point of accommodation, Visual acuity with Snellen eye chart, Testing for astigmatism, Testing for color blindness with Ishihara color plates, Testing for depth perception, Photopupillary reflex, Accommodation pupillary reflex, and Convergence reflex.


Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in Activity 4, [excluding audiometry].  This includes: Acuity test, Sound localization, Frequency range of hearing, Weber test, and Rinne test.


Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Activity 3 on Stimulating Taste Buds,
Activity 4 on Olfactory Stimulation (on Taste), Activity 5 on Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Activity 6 on Olfactory Adaptation.

NOVEMBER 30, DECEMBER 2 – EXAM THREE at 1:30 The exam will take about 30 minutes, and consists of 25 stations/questions and one minute per station.  You cannot return to any stations.  Spelling does not have to exact, but must be very close.