Animal Physiology Lecture Objectives – Unit Four


Respiration Part 1, Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

  1. Distinguish gas exchange in unicellular and multicellular organisms.
  2. Define diffusion, flux, and convection as they relate to gas exchange.
  3. Identify two diffusion mechanisms and the two convection mechanisms in gas exchange found in air breathing and water breathing animals.
  4. Identify barometric or atmospheric pressure at sea level and in Denver.
  5. Define partial pressure of both oxygen and carbon dioxide at sea level.
  6. Define Henry’s law.
  7. Distinguish oxygen solubility in air vs. water, fresh vs. salt water, and at different environmental temperatures.

Respiration Part 2, Gas Transfer

  1. Define key terms such as ventilation, elastic recoil and compliance, surface tension, surfactant, and hemoglobin.
  2. Define diffusion as it relates to oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
  3. Define a mammalian alveolus (alveoli pl.) and pulmonary capillary.
  4. Define inhalation = inspiration and exhalation =expiration according to the fundamentals of Boyle’s law.
  5. Define tidal volume, dead air volume and alveolar ventilation rate.

Respiration Part 3 Non-Mammalian Respiration and Gas Transport in Blood

  1. Identify the issues that must be overcome in order to breathe in water.
  2. Determine the ventilation mechanisms in gill breathing fish, birds, reptiles, and frogs.
  3. Define key terms such as external and internal gill; parabronchi, air capillaries, and air sacs in birds; the tracheal system in insects; and chloride shift.
  4. Identify the gill structure that increases surface area for gas exchange.
  5. Define the countercurrent mechanism between water flow across the gills and blood flow.
  6. Identify which group of vertebrates can respire exclusively cutaneously.
  7. Identify respiratory pigments that transport oxygen in different species.
  8. Determine the Bohr effect, Root effect, and hemoglobin saturation with oxygen using the oxygen-dissociation curve.
  9. Identify the means of transporting carbon dioxide is  in the bloodstream.
  10. Identify the equation to convert carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions and visa verse.
  11. Determine the Haldane effect and blood carbon dioxide levels using the carbon dioxide equilibrium curve.

Acid-Base Physiology

  1. Define acid and base.
  2. Determine hydrogen ion concentration with 0-14  pH values.
  3. Determine the outcome of hydrogen ions combining with hydroxide ions.
  4. Define electrical neutrality, ion, and electrolyte.
  5. Define Strong Ion Difference (SID).
  6. Define buffer.
  7. Determine changes in pH from the respiratory and urinary buffer systems.
  8. Identify the equations for the following buffer systems: Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Protein.


Ionic and Osmotic Balance, and Nitrogen Excretion

  1. Identify the mechanisms that maintain ionic and osmotic balance in a freshwater vs. a saltwater fish, waterproof the integument, and maximize salt concentrations in salt glands.
  2. Identify the main osmotic concern of terrestrial animals.
  3. Define key terms such as  ionoconformer, ionoregulator, osmoconformer, osmoregulator, regulatory volume increase, and regulatory volume decrease.
  4. Identify some sources of water.
  5. Identify organs involved in ionic balance.
  6. Identify the three forms of nitrogen excreted from the body.
  7. Identify the source of nitrogen that must be excreted.
  8. Determine the advantages and disadvantages for different forms of nitrogen excrement.
  9. Identify an animal that can change its form of nitrogen waste as its environment changes.

The Mammalian Kidney

  1. Identify the basic function of the mammalian kidney.
  2. Identify the following renal structures: renal cortex, renal medulla, pyramid, and renal pelvis.
  3. Identify the components of nephron.
  4. Determine the factors favoring and opposing glomerular filtration.
  5. Define key terms such as glomerular filtration, ADH, urine, nephron, tubular reabsorption and secretion, and aldosterone.
  6. Identify the countercurrent multiplication mechanism of the nephron and the vasa recta.
  7. Determine the change in urine volume and concentration as its precursor passes through the nephron.