Respiration Part 1, Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
- Distinguish gas exchange in unicellular and multicellular organisms.
- Define diffusion, flux, and convection as they relate to gas exchange.
- Identify two diffusion mechanisms and the two convection mechanisms in gas exchange found in air breathing and water breathing animals.
- Identify barometric or atmospheric pressure at sea level and in Denver.
- Define partial pressure of both oxygen and carbon dioxide at sea level.
- Define Henry’s law.
- Distinguish oxygen solubility in air vs. water, fresh vs. salt water, and at different environmental temperatures.
Respiration Part 2, Gas Transfer
- Define key terms such as ventilation, elastic recoil and compliance, surface tension, surfactant, and hemoglobin.
- Define diffusion as it relates to oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
- Define a mammalian alveolus (alveoli pl.) and pulmonary capillary.
- Define inhalation = inspiration and exhalation =expiration according to the fundamentals of Boyle’s law.
- Define tidal volume, dead air volume and alveolar ventilation rate.
Respiration Part 3 Non-Mammalian Respiration and Gas Transport in Blood
- Identify the issues that must be overcome in order to breathe in water.
- Determine the ventilation mechanisms in gill breathing fish, birds, reptiles, and frogs.
- Define key terms such as external and internal gill; parabronchi, air capillaries, and air sacs in birds; the tracheal system in insects; and chloride shift.
- Identify the gill structure that increases surface area for gas exchange.
- Define the countercurrent mechanism between water flow across the gills and blood flow.
- Identify which group of vertebrates can respire exclusively cutaneously.
- Identify respiratory pigments that transport oxygen in different species.
- Determine the Bohr effect, Root effect, and hemoglobin saturation with oxygen using the oxygen-dissociation curve.
- Identify the means of transporting carbon dioxide is in the bloodstream.
- Identify the equation to convert carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions and visa verse.
- Determine the Haldane effect and blood carbon dioxide levels using the carbon dioxide equilibrium curve.
- Define acid and base.
- Determine hydrogen ion concentration with 0-14 pH values.
- Determine the outcome of hydrogen ions combining with hydroxide ions.
- Define electrical neutrality, ion, and electrolyte.
- Define Strong Ion Difference (SID).
- Define buffer.
- Determine changes in pH from the respiratory and urinary buffer systems.
- Identify the equations for the following buffer systems: Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Protein.
Ionic and Osmotic Balance, and Nitrogen Excretion
- Identify the mechanisms that maintain ionic and osmotic balance in a freshwater vs. a saltwater fish, waterproof the integument, and maximize salt concentrations in salt glands.
- Identify the main osmotic concern of terrestrial animals.
- Define key terms such as ionoconformer, ionoregulator, osmoconformer, osmoregulator, regulatory volume increase, and regulatory volume decrease.
- Identify some sources of water.
- Identify organs involved in ionic balance.
- Identify the three forms of nitrogen excreted from the body.
- Identify the source of nitrogen that must be excreted.
- Determine the advantages and disadvantages for different forms of nitrogen excrement.
- Identify an animal that can change its form of nitrogen waste as its environment changes.
The Mammalian Kidney
- Identify the basic function of the mammalian kidney.
- Identify the following renal structures: renal cortex, renal medulla, pyramid, and renal pelvis.
- Identify the components of nephron.
- Determine the factors favoring and opposing glomerular filtration.
- Define key terms such as glomerular filtration, ADH, urine, nephron, tubular reabsorption and secretion, and aldosterone.
- Identify the countercurrent multiplication mechanism of the nephron and the vasa recta.
- Determine the change in urine volume and concentration as its precursor passes through the nephron.