Objectives – 1, BIO 2320, BloodAnswers
D. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM – BLOOD
1.Heart, Blood vessels, Blood. Functions to carry nutrients, hormones, waste, temperature regulation, fight infection. An adult has 4-6 liters of blood
2.Erythrocytes = RBCs carry oxygen; Platelets = Thrombocytes clot the blood; White blood cells = Leukocytes fight infection
3.Hemoglobin is the red protein in RBCs that carries oxygen. Erythropoiesis is the process of making RBCs and occurs in the red bone marrow, hemopoiesis is the process of making any blood cell, erythropoietin is a hormone made by the kidneys in response to too little blood going to the kidneys and it stimulates erythropoiesis.
4.Oxygenated is bright red, deoxygenated is red- blue.
5.A blood has A antigens on its surface; B blood has B antigens on its surface; AB blood has A and B antigens on its surface and O blood has no antigens on its surface. Therefore, in the plasma portion of the blood, type A blood has B antibodies circulating; type B blood has A antibodies circulation; Type AB blood couldn’t have any antibodies circulating or else you would destroy your own blood; Type O has A and B antibodies circulating. The universal donor is O because there are no surface markers. The universal recipient is AB because he/she has no antibodies to destroy any donated blood.
6.If Rh Factor is present, you are Rh positive. If it is absent you are Rh negative. If a Rh negative woman gets exposed to Rh positive blood, she will make antibodies against Rh factor because it is foreign to her. These circulating antibodies could cross the placenta and attack the blood of her fetus that is Rh positive and kill the fetus. This disease is erythroblastosis fetalis.
7.Granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils and basically operate as phagocytes. Agranulocytes are monocytes (=macrophages) which are powerful phagocytes and Lymphocytes which operate in immunity to keep you healthy.
8.Clotting factors are made in the liver. In hemostasis, first there is vascular constriction to decrease the amount of bleeding. Then platelets attempt to plug the hole. Then, comes coagulation which is extrinsic if there is damage outside of the blood vessel. This pathway is a quick pathway starting with the release of thromboplastin and finally completing by activating prothrombin to thrombin which causes fibrinogen to activate to fibrin. This fibrin is responsible for the thick and solid clot that we know as coagulation. With intrinsic pathway, there must be internal blood vessel damage and it is a longer pathway. It involves the conversion of several clotting factors from an inactive to an active form. It ends with the thrombin and fibrin production as described above. Lastly, the fibrin threads pull together squeezing out some serum making a dry solid clot in a process called clot retraction.
10. Plasmin is released by neighboring cells of the blood vessel as they undergo mitosis to repair the injury. This will dissolve away the clot as healing occurs.
11.Blood vessel endothelium is smooth, decreasing chance of spontaneous clotting. Heparin is released by basophils and an abundant connective tissue cell called a mast cell and this also prevents spontaneous clotting.
12.Thrombus is an intravascular clot that occurred spontaneously. If it is loosened and carried away in the bloodstream, it is an embolus. Serum is plasma minus the clotting factors.
13.Abnormal intrinsic coagulation pathway due to genetic lack of Factor VIII.
14.Mostly water. Also albumin that functions in osmosis to keep water in the bloodstream, globulins which are proteins that are primarily antibodies (fight infection proteins) and inactive clotting factors such as fibrinogen
15.Watery fluid bathing the tissues. It is similar to plasma, but Outside of the blood vessel.