Outline-1, BIO 2320, Review Terminology

I. Anatomical terminology

A. Anatomy, gross anatomy, physiology

Study of structure, macroscopic structure, function

B. 6 Levels of organization

Chemical, Cell, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism

C. Anatomical position

Standing erect, arms by side, palms facing forward

D. Directional terms

1. Lateral/medial

Away/towards midline axis

2. Proximal/distal

Towards/away from point of origin

3. Anterior [ventral]/posterior [dorsal]

Front[belly side]/back [back side]

4. Superior [cranial]/inferior [caudal]

Above [towards head]/below [towards tail]

5. Superficial [external]/deep [internal]

6. Ipsilateral/contralateral/bilateral

Same side/opposite side/both sides

E. Planes/sections

1. Sagittal, midsagittal

Left & right portions

2. Transverse (cross)

Superior & inferior portions

3. Frontal (coronal)

Anterior & posterior portions

F. Cavities

1. Dorsal

a. Cranial

Contains brain

b. Vertebral

Contains spinal cord

2. Ventral (viscera)

a. Thoracic {diaphragm}

Contains heart, lungs

b. Abdominal

Contains liver, stomach, intestines

c. Pelvic

Contains reproductive and urinary structures

II. Homeostasis

Balance, dynamic equilibrium

A. Sensors, control center, effectors

B. Positive/negative feedback loops