A. NERVOUS TISSUE
1. Identify the 3 basic functions of the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis.
2. Classify the organs of the nervous system into central and peripheral divisions. Include in your classification, the terms afferent, efferent, somatic, visceral, and autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic/sympathetic).
3. Name the 3 main parts of a neuron and describe their functions.
4. Define nuclei and ganglia as they relate to nerve cell body location.
5. Contrast white and gray matter.
6. Distinguish between the structure of a myelinated and an unmyelinated axon, and describe how a myelin sheath is formed.
7. Describe how a peripheral nerve is regenerated if cut, and explain why an axon of the CNS cannot regenerate as well.
8. Explain the nature of the blood-brain barrier.
9. Define neuroglia and give an example of a neuroglial cell.
10. Define nerve. Where are nerves located?
11. Classify neurons according to structure.
12. Define cation and anion.
13. Describe a membrane potential.
14. Explain how the Na+/K+ pump contributes to the resting membrane potential.
15. What is the approximate voltage of a neuron’s resting membrane potential?
16. Describe the factors that contribute to establishing the resting membrane potential.
17. Describe depolarization and repolarization.
18. Define local potential.
19. Which cells have action potentials? Describe the events of an action potential.
20. Explain how the sodium and potassium concentrations return to the levels of an unstimulated neuron, following an action potential.
21. Describe the events of a nerve impulse in myelinated and unmyelinated neurons.
22. Discuss the factors that determine the speed of impulse conduction.
23. Define the all-or-none principle of nerve impulse transmission.
24. Explain why normal nerve impulses tend to be unidirectional.
25. Define synapse, presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron, synaptic cleft, synaptic vesicle, and neurotransmitter.
26. Describe the action of neurotransmitters. Give an example of a neurotransmitter.
27. Contrast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP).
28. Name the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.
29. Define catecholamine.
30. Define neuromodulator and give an example.
31. Contrast convergence and divergence as it relates to neural integration.
32. Describe temporal and spatial summation.
33. Define receptor and describe how a stimulus leads to a nerve impulse and how we can distinguish a weak from a strong stimulus.
34. Describe adaptation. Which sensation does not adapt?
35. Define effector and end-plate potential.