Objectives-2, BIO 3220, Muscular System



1. Explain the overall function of muscles.

2. Classify muscle tissue according to microscopic appearance and nervous control.

3. Describe the parts of a muscle cell {=fiber} – including myofibril, myofilament, actin, myosin and sarcomere.

4. Define motor neuron and motor unit.

5. Define intercalated disk.

6. Define and give an example of a somatic muscle.

7. Define and give an example of a visceral muscle.

8. Compare and contrast red and white muscle fibers.

9. Describe the following gross anatomical features: origin, insertion, fascia, tendon and aponeurosis.

10. Characterize the various muscle shapes.

11. Review the following muscle actions: flex, extend, adduct, abduct, levator, depressor, protract, retract, constrict, dilator, rotator, supinator, pronator and tensor.

12. Contrast agonist, synergist and antagonist.

13. Discuss the embryologic development of muscle. How is phylogeny of muscles studied?

14. Define metamerism, somite and myoseptum.

15. Distinguish axial from appendicular muscles.

16. Characterize epaxial muscles. Discuss their function and innervation. [see muscle handout]

17. Characterize hypaxial muscles. Discuss their function and innervation.

18. Characterize hypobranchial muscles. Discuss their function, origin and innervation.

19. Characterize extrinsic eye muscles. Discuss their function, origin and innervation.

20. Describe the axial muscles of agnathans, fish and tetrapods – include a description of the following muscles: dorsalis trunci, intervertebrals, longissimus, spinales, iliocostalis, subvertebrals, abdominal obliques, transversus, intercostals, rectus abdominis and diaphragm.

21. Describe the hypobranchial and tongue muscles of tetrapods.

22. Describe the appendicular muscles of fish.

23. Describe the dorsal and ventral muscle groups of the pectoral and pelvic limb as described on your muscle handout.

24. Characterize the branchiomeric muscles. What is their origin?

25. Discuss the branchiomeric muscles of each pharyngeal arch per your muscle handout.

26. Discuss the incidence, derivation, function and structure of electric organs.

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