C. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. Differentiate external and internal respiration.
2. Define ventilation and diffusion.
3. Name an animal that uses cutaneous respiration.
4. Name the germ layer from which external gills develop. Elaborate on the function of external gills and name a species that has these gills.
5. Discuss the development of internal gills – include descriptions of pharyngeal pouch, visceral groove, visceral arch, and aortic arch.
6. Define spiracle.
7. Compare the development of internal gills in primitive fish, jawed fish and tetrapods.
8. Describe the following gill structures: Gill bar, gill septae, gill rakers, gill filaments and lamellae.
9. Contrast holobranch, hemibranch and pseudobranch.
10. Trace the blood flow through the gill.
11. Describe how countercurrent flow allows maximal O2/CO2 exchange.
12. Address any other functions of gills besides gas exchange.
13. Name the three classifications of gills; describe their structures, ventilation, and name a species that possesses each type.
14. Discuss the development/evolution of the swim bladder.
15. Describe the structure and function of the swim bladder. Define gas gland, rete mirabile, pneumatic duct, and weberian ossicles.
16. Contrast physostomous and physoclistous.
17. Compare fish and tetrapod respiration.
18. Characterize the respiratory tree of anurans and urodeles. Name their laryngeal cartilages.
19. Discuss ventilation in amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
20. Discuss the respiratory anatomy in reptiles and mammals.
21. Name the laryngeal cartilages unique to mammals.
22. Characterize the unique respiratory tree of birds. What are air sacs?
23. Define syrinx.