Animal Physiology Lecture Objectives – Unit One


Introduction to Animal Physiology

  1. Define animal physiology.
  2. Identify the levels used to study animal physiology.
  3. Identify a teleological, a mechanistic, and an evolutionary approach to studying animal physiology.
  4. Define homeostasis and identify a homeostatic mechanism.
  5. Define ECF and ICF.
  6. Identify characteristics and examples of a negative feedback system.
  7. Define a regulator, as in a thermoregulator, vs. a conformer, as in a thermoconformer.

Cell Membranes

  1. Identify the basic functions of the cell or plasma membrane.
  2. Identify the structure of the phospholipid bilayer, including their amphipathic arrangement of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions.
  3. Identify examples of lipids that can be found in the plasma membrane.
  4. Identify what is meant by membrane fluidity, as well as its advantages, adjustments, and the fluid mosaic model.
  5. Identify the two types of membrane proteins.
  6. Identify membrane protein functions.

Cell Signaling

  1. Distinguish the structure of proteins, including the building blocks, the bonds, the different structural shapes.
  2. Define ligand.
  3. Distinguish between receptor specificity, saturation, affinity and modulation.
  4. Define a gap junction.
  5. Distinguish autocrine, paracrine and endocrine glands.
  6. Distinguish the locations of hormone receptors and specify the types of ligands that could bind to these receptors, depending on their location.
  7. Distinguish between a first and second messenger.
  8. Define kinase and target cell.
  9. Identify the 3 domains of a transmembrane receptor.
  10. Define signal amplification.
  11. Identify the steps involved when membrane G proteins are activated and then lead to the production of second messengers.

Membrane Transport

  1. Define key terms such as diffusion, osmosis, osmotic pressure, aquaporin, facilitated diffusion (aka passive transport), voltage, ligand, mechanically regulated membrane channels, channel gating, solution, symport, and antiport.
  2. Determine influencing factors in the rate of diffusion.
  3. Predict the effects of osmotic pressure.
  4. Determine what happens to a red blood cell (RBC) if placed in an isotonic solution, a hypotonic solution, or a hypertonic solution.
  5. Determine the effect of ion channels (ether closed or open) in a cell membrane.
  6. Define voltage, ligand, and mechanically regulated membrane channels.
  7. Identify characteristics and examples of active transport (both primary and secondary).

Membrane Potentials

  1. Determine where an electrical potential exists across the cell membrane.
  2. Identify the cells that have a resting membrane potential or are polarized.
  3. Identify the average resting membrane potential of a cell and the meaning of its negative sign.
  4. Calculate the potassium equilibrium potential of a cell using the Nernst equation.
  5. Determine the difference between the resting membrane potential and the equilibrium potential when only potassium ions are involved.
  6. Identify the main contributing factors to the establishment of the membrane potential.
  7. Identify the role of the Na/K pump in maintaining the resting membrane potential.

Epithelial Transport

  1. Define key terms such as histology, tissue, tight junction, basement membrane, and transcellular and paracellular transport.
  2. Identify the four overall types of tissue.
  3. Identify the locations where epithelium may be found.
  4. Identify the function and characteristics of epithelium, including its regeneration ability and vascularity.
  5. Identify the properties of epithelial tissues that affect molecule movement.
  6. Distinguish between tight and leaky epithelia.