Objectives-1, BIO 3220, Integumentary System


1. Discuss the various functions of skin and its derivatives.

2. Review the embryonic derivation of epidermis and dermis.

3. Examine the overall structure of epidermis. What is keratin; it’s purpose? What are photophores? Identify the derivation of feathers, claws, scales and glands.

4. Examine the structural make-up of the dermis. What potential makes the dermis unique?

5. Name the three hard tissues in the body. Review their embryonic origin and briefly describe the phylogeny.

6. Describe chromatophores. Contrast them between homeotherms and poikilotherms.

7. Describe the epidermis of fish. Name the abundant glands.

8. Describe the armor shields {4 layers} of ostracoderms and placoderms. Define denticle.

9. Compare cosmoid, ganoid, placoid, and modern scales. Relate scales phylogenetically to teeth and bone.

10. Describe the two types of modern teleost scales.

11. Name three major differences between fish and amphibian skin.

12. Explain the purpose of the stratum corneum in tetrapods.

13. Describe the epidermis, epidermal glands, and dermis of amphibians.

14. List five ways reptile skin differs from amphibian skin.

15. Describe the epidermis, scales, scutes, glands and dermis of reptiles. [Include osteoderms, “shells” and gastralia.]

16. List the general differences found in bird skin.

17. Describe the epidermis, scales, glands and beak of birds.

18. Explain how did feathers evolved.

19. Distinguish the parts of contour feathers. Explain what preening does to these feathers.

20. Contrast the structure and function of down feathers and contour feathers.

21. Explain molt.

22. Describe the dermis of birds.

23. List four mammalian skin characteristics.

24. Identify the layers of mammalian epidermis.

25. Name the stratum corneum derivatives in mammals.

26. Name and contrast three types of horns.

27. Discuss mammalian integumentary glands. Which are unique to mammals?

28. Theorize the phylogenetic origin of hair.

29. Describe the structure of hair – Include shaft, root, cortex, cuticle, medulla, follicle, bulb, and the arrector pili muscle.

30. Name four types of hair.

31. Describe the dermis of mammals.

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