C. SPECIAL SENSES
1. Define olfaction.
2. Describe the olfactory pathway.
3. Define gustation. Explain why taste requires liquification of food.
4. Describe the gustatory pathway.
5. Name and describe the structures included in the 3 layers of the eyeball.
6. Describe the function and the tissue make-up of the iris.
7. Describe the location and function of the retina.
8. What and where is the blind spot?
9. Describe the location and function of the lens, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor.
10. Describe the locations of the palpebral fissure, medial and lateral commissures, caruncle, tarsal plate, conjunctiva, Meibomian glands, palpebrae, and sebaceous ciliary glands.
11. Describe the structures that comprise the lacrimal apparatus.
12. Name the photoreceptors and describe their location.
13. Define refraction as it pertains to vision.
14. Describe how images are focused.
15. Define emmetropia, accommodation, and near point of vision.
16. Describe the controls over eyeball movements.
17. Describe binocular vision.
18. Define diplopia, strabismus, and rhodopsin.
19. Describe how the photoreceptors function.
20. Contrast rods and cones.
21. Describe the neural components of the retina and explain lateral inhibition.
22. Describe the visual pathway.
23. Describe visual acuity, Snellen eye chart, and visual resolving power.
24. Describe mechanisms of light and dark adaptation.
25. Describe direct and indirect pupillary light reflexes.
26. List the 3 parts of the external ear.
27. Where would one find ceruminous glands?
28. Describe the location and function of the auditory (Eustachian) tube.
29. List the parts of the middle ear. Describe their functions.
30. List the parts of the inner ear. Describe their functions.
31. Describe the location of perilymph and endolymph.
32. Describe the mechanism of hearing.
33. Describe the tympanic reflex (sound attenuation).
34. Explain how one determines the location, loudness, and pitch of sound.
35. Describe the mechanism for detecting linear acceleration and deceleration.
36. Describe the mechanism for detecting head position.
37. Describe the mechanism for detecting rotational acceleration and deceleration.
38. Explain vestibular nystagmus.
39. Describe the mechanism for maintaining whole body dynamic equilibrium.