A. URINARY SYSTEM
1. Describe the basic function of the urinary system.
2. List the major components of the urinary system.
3. Define retroperitoneal as it relates to the kidney.
4. List the 3 protective layers of the kidney.
5. Describe the following renal structures: Hilus, renal cortex, renal medulla, pyramid, renal papillae, renal pelvis, and renal calyces (calyx).
6. Describe the blood flow to the kidney.
7. Name the functional microscopic unit of the kidney and describe its specific parts.
8. Describe the glomerulus and the renal corpuscle.
9. Describe the overall nephron physiology. Define urine.
10. Describe glomerular filtration.
11. Describe the factors that favor and oppose glomerular filtration.
12. Discuss the effects of increased blood pressure and decreased blood pressure (as in hemorrhaging) on glomerular filtration.
13. Describe active and passive tubular reabsorption and give examples.
14. Discuss the significance of an increasingly concentrated interstitial fluid as you descend from the cortex to the medulla. Describe how this concentration is maintained.
15. Describe the reabsorption and secretion that occur in all parts of the nephron.
16. Define juxtaglomerular apparatus. Name the enzyme made here and describe its function.
17. Describe the function of ADH. Where is it made and stored?
18. Describe the function of aldosterone. Where is it made?
19. Describe the countercurrent multiplication mechanism of the kidneys.
20. Describe the changes in urine volume and concentration as urine passes through the nephron and collecting tubule.
21. Describe the vasa recta and how it is part of the countercurrent mechanism.
22. Describe the function of erythropoietin and where its precursor is made.
23. What is the minimum daily urine volume and why?
24. Describe the location and function of the ureters and urinary bladder.
25. Urine emptying from the bladder is controlled by what two muscles?
26. Define micturition. Describe the process. Explain why babies cannot control urination.
27. Describe the location and function of the urethra. Is it longer in males or females?