A. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. Name the organs (in order) and their basic functions included in the respiratory system.
2. Name the bones forming the floor, roof, and walls of the nasal cavity.
3. Name the bones (and cartilage) forming the nasal septum.
4. Define a paranasal sinus.
5. Name the 3 conchae and the grooves between them.
6. Describe the boundaries for each of the 3 parts of the pharynx.
7. Locate the tonsils in the pharynx.
8. Describe the function of tonsils.
9. Define uvula and adenoid.
10. Identify the location of the openings to the eustachian tubes.
11. Name the 9 cartilages of the larynx.
12. Describe the function of the epiglottis.
13. Describe how sound is produced for our voices. What is the function of the ventricular folds?
14. Name the tissue that the trachea is made of.
15. Define carina.
16. Describe the distribution of cartilage and smooth muscle in the bronchial tree.
17. How many lung lobes in each human lung?
18. Describe the mediastinum.
19. Define visceral and parietal pleura and pleural cavity.
20. Define alveoli.
21. Describe the alveolar-capillary membrane.
22. Describe where and how gas (CO2 & O2) exchange takes place.
23. Describe the overall function of the respiratory system.
24. Explain Boyle’s Law.
25. Define ventilation, inspiration, expiration, inhalation, and exhalation.
26. Define atmospheric, intrapulmonary, and intrapleural pressure.
27. Describe the process of inhalation and the muscles involved.
28. Describe expiration and forced expiration.
29. Describe some factors that influence pulmonary air flow.
30. Define surface tension. How does surface tension influence lung expansion?
31. Explain the purpose of pulmonary surfactant and how it relates to respiratory distress in premature babies.
32. Define tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute respiratory volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, functional residual capacity, vital capacity and total lung capacity.
33. Describe dead air volume.
34. Describe alveolar ventilation and describe the most efficient means of increasing it.
35. Describe some control mechanisms to closely match alveolar airflow and blood flow.
36. Define partial pressure.
37. Describe the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the pulmonary capillaries, and between systemic capillaries and body tissue.
38. Describe how oxygen is transported in the bloodstream.
39. Describe how the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is affected by PO2, pH, PCO2, temperature, and DPG.
40. Describe how carbon dioxide is carried in the bloodstream.
41. Explain how bicarbonate is formed from water and carbon dioxide.
42. Describe the chloride shift.
43. Describe the generation of the rhythmical breathing movement; include stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms.
44. Describe how arterial PO2 influences alveolar ventilation.
45. Describe how arterial PCO2 influences alveolar ventilation.
46. Describe how arterial pH influences alveolar ventilation.
47. Describe the effects of exercise on the respiratory system.