Outline-1, BIO 2310, Articulations


A. Definition & Examples


B. Functional classification

1. Synarthroses

Not moveable


Slightly moveable

3. Diarthroses

Freely moveable

C. Structural Classification

1. Fibrous

Fibrous connective tissue

a. Suture (synarthrotic)

Cranial bones

b. Syndesmosis (amphiarthrotic)

Radius-Ulna; Tibia-Fibula

c. Gomphosis (synarthrotic)

Periodontal ligament to alveolus

2. Cartilaginous

a. Synchondrosis (can be temporary, synarthrotic)

Epiphyseal plate, sternocostal at rib 1

b. Symphysis (amphiarthrotic)

Symphysis pubis, Intervertebral discs

3. Synovial(diarthrotic)

a. Joint/synovial cavity

b. Articular cartilage

c. Articular capsule

-Synovial membrane

-Synovial fluid

-Outer fibrous layer

d. Ligaments

e. Accessory ligaments [cruciate]

f. Menisci [stability]

g. Bursae [cushion]

D. Angular movements

1. Flexion, dorsiflexion

2. Extension, hyperextension, plantar flexion

3. Abduction, adduction

4. Rotation [medial, lateral]

5. Circumduction

6. Inversion, eversion

7. Elevation, depression

8. Protraction, retraction

9. Supination, pronation

E. Synovial joints based on articular shapes

1. Gliding

Side to side; back & forth

Acromioclavicular, between adjacent vertebral articular processes, intercarpal, intertarsal

2. Hinge

Flexion, extension

Elbow, ankle

3. Pivot


Atlas-axis, proximal radioulnar

4. Ellipsoidal

Flex, extend, abduct, adduct, some circumduction

Atlanto-occipital, Radiocarpal; Metacarpophalangeal; metatarsophalangeal

5. Saddle

Same as ellipsoidal but freer

Carpometacarpal of pollex

6. Ball & Socket

Rotate, flex, extend, circumduct

Shoulder, hip

Joints as Lever Systems Tutorial Video