Outline-3, BIO 2320, Respiratory Anatomy


A. Definitions

1. Upper vs lower

Upper is pathway taking air to lungs, lower is lung and its contents

2. External vs internal vs cellular

External is between lungs/blood, internal is between blood/cells, cellular is utilization of oxygen by cells

B. Organs

1. Nose and nasal cavity

a. External nares = Nostrils

b. Nasal septum

1. Vomer

2. Perpendicular plate – ethmoid

3. Cartilage

c. Boundaries

1. Lateral & Superior






2. Floor

-Hard palate (palatine process, palatine


d. Internal nares

Posterior boundary of nasal cavity

e. Paranasal sinuses

Cavities in skull bones that communicate with nasal cavity – frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, sphenoidal

f. Superior, middle, inferior meatuses (grooves)

& Conchae (shelves-extend from lateral walls)

g. Function

1. Warm, filter, moisten air

2. Smell

3. Mucus

4. Resonate sound

2. Pharynx[common to GI & resp]

a. Nasopharynx(internal nares-soft palate)

1. Eustachian tubes = Auditory tubes

Connect nasopharynx with middle ear

2. 1 tonsil (adenoid)

b. Oropharynx(soft palate-hyoid)

1. 2 pairs of tonsils (palatine, lingual)

2. Uvula

Flap dangling from soft palate, lymphatic function

c. Laryngopharynx(hyoid-larynx)

3. Larynx

a. Cartilages

1. Thyroid

2. Epiglottis

3. Cricoid

4. 2 Arytenoid

5. 2 Corniculate

6. 2 Cuneiform

b. Mucous membranes

1. Ventricular = Vestibular folds (false-upper)

2. Vocal folds (true-lower)

3. Glottis

Actual opening in larynx

4. Voice

Vibration of vocal folds, resonating chambers, muscles for enunciation

4. Trachea

a. Carina

Inferior end of trachea

5. Bronchi

– Bronchial tree

a. Primary bronchi

Enter lungs, cartilaginous rings

b. Secondary

Enter lung lobes, less cartilage

c. Tertiary

Branch within lobes

d. Bronchioles

No cartilage in walls, replaced by smooth muscle

e. Terminal bronchioles

Last airway leading to air sacs called alveoli

6. Lungs

a. Membranes

1. Parietal pleura

Shiny lining of thoracic cavity

2. Visceral pleura

Shiny lung covering

3. Pleural cavity

b. Gross anatomy

1. Apex


2. Base


3. Costal surface

Towards rib

4. Mediastinal surface –Mediastinum-Medial

5. Hilus

Area where bronchi, blood vessels enter/exit lung

6. Lobes (L-2; R-3)

c. Microstructure

1. Alveolus/Alveoli

About 300 million total for great surface area

2. Alveolar-capillary membrane

Thin! Diffusion!

Respiratory Anatomy Lung Gross Anatomy Video

Respiratory Tract Video