Objectives-1, BIO 3220, Appendicular Skeleton


1. Describe the formation of the bones of the appendicular skeleton.

2. Identify the function of the pectoral girdle.

3. Name the replacement bones of the pectoral girdle.

4. Name the membrane bones of the pectoral girdle.

5. Discuss phylogenetic tendencies of these replacement and membrane bones.

6. Identify the part of the pectoral girdle that articulates with limbs or fins.

7. Distinguish the pectoral girdle of all vertebrate classes.

8. Identify the unique role of the posttemporal bone.

9. Explain the difference between the anterior and posterior coracoids and the coracoid process.

10. Name the bone with an acromion process? A glenoid fossa?

11. Identify the function of the pelvic girdle.

12. Name the bones that comprise the pelvic girdle. What type of bones are these.

13. Name the socket for the thigh bone. Define innominate, coxal, symphysis and pelvic cavity.

14. Characterize the pelvic girdle for all vertebrate classes.

15. Describe the function and structure of fins.

16. Define lepidotrichia, ceratotrichia, pterygiophore, basals, and radials.

17. Describe paired fins in all classes that have them.

18. Discuss the location, function and variations of median fins.

19. Address the different arrangements of caudal fins – specifically heterocercal, hypocercal, diphycercal and homocercal.

20. Discuss the origin of tetrapod limbs.

21. Depict the function and evolutionary trends of limbs.

22. Describe the structure of pectoral and pelvic limbs including: propodium, epipodium, mesopodium, metapodium and phalanges.

23. Define manus and pes. Define epiphysis and diaphysis.

24. Explain long bone growth in terms of length and diameter.

25. Discuss variations of limbs of tetrapod classes.

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