Answers, BIO 2320, Introduction



1. Study of structure, macroscopic (big) structures, study of function.

2. Molecular (glucose), Cell (muscle cell), Tissue, (connective tissue), Organ (stomach), Organ System (digestive system), Organism (human being).

3. Standing erect, arms down by your side, palms facing forward.

4. Medial/Lateral (towards and away from midline)

Proximal/Distal (towards trunk and away from trunk)

Anterior/ Posterior (front, back)

Superior/Inferior (above, below)

External/ Internal (outer, inner)

Superficial/Deep (external, internal)

Ventral/Dorsal (front, back)

Cranial/Caudal (towards head, away from head)

Ipsilateral/Contralateral (same side of body, opposite side of body)

5. Transverse divides you into superior & inferior portions

Sagittal divides you into left & right portions

Frontal divides you into anterior & posterior portions

6. Posterior = Dorsal cavity containing the cranial cavity (brain) and spinal or vertebral cavity (spinal cord); Anterior = Ventral cavity which subdivides into thoracic cavity (heart & lungs), abdominal cavity (liver, stomach, intestines), and pelvic cavity (rectum, reproductive organs)

7. Balance or steady state. If your body temp is too low, you shiver. Once it reaches a normal temp., you STOP the process of shivering.

8. Negative feedback is described above and is when you have the opposite effect. Positive feedback does not lend itself towards homeostasis & would be the process of a small blood clot leading to a bigger one and an even bigger one etc…