Sensory Physiology Part 1
- Define key terms such as sensation, generator potential, receptor potential, stimulus transduction and projection, adaptation, and convergence.
- Identify factors that influence the size of a receptor potential.
- Define receptive field and its measurement with two point discrimination.
- Define lateral inhibition as it pertains to sensory physiology.
Sensory Physiology Part 2
- Determine light properties in terms of electromagnetic waves, focal point, and refraction.
- Identify different eye arrangements in different animals.
- Identify the receptors involved in vision and the following features of the eye and retina: and the following eye features: cornea, lens, iris, pupil, retina, optic nerve, macula lutea, fovea centralis, pigmented layer, and optic disk.
- Distinguish the effect of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic stimulation on the size of the pupil.
- Identify the two main components of rhodopsin and the vitamin needed for its synthesis.
- Determine the resting membrane potential in the rod when it’s dark.
- Identify the molecular changes in rhodopsin, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells when exposed to light.
- Distinguish the level of convergence and visual acuity when following the rod pathway and the cone pathway.
- Define bleaching of the rods.
- Identify the characteristics of rods and cones, including their locations on the retina, sensitivity to light, and numbers.
Sensory Physiology Part 3
- Define key terms such as mechanoreception, soundwave, otolith, and statocyst.
- Determine how mechanoreceptors lead to an action potential in a sensory neuron.
- Distinguish the parts of the hair receptor, including the kinocilium and stereocilia.
- Determine the sound wave size and frequencies for different pitches and volumes of sound.
- Define these structures of hearing: external ear, middle ear, inner ear, ear canal, tympanic membrane, auditory tube, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, round window, scala tympani, scala vestibuli, basilar membrane, spiral organ (= organ of Corti), cochlea and cochlear duct.
- Distinguish perilymph from endolymph.
- Determine the parts of the cochlear duct that respond to differing sound wave frequencies, based on the length of the hair cells.
- Define these structures of equilibrium: vestibule, utricle, saccule, semicircular canal, semicircular duct.
- Identify the receptors for head position, linear acceleration and deceleration, and rotational acceleration and deceleration.
Circulation Part 1: Heart
- Identify similarities and differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle.
- Define intercalated disk=disc.
- Identify the location and role of the SA node.
- Define pacemaker potential and cardiac action potential.
- Identify the pathway of electrical conduction throughout the heart.
- Identify functions of circulatory systems.
- Distinguish an open from a closed circulatory pathway.
- Identify the four chambers of the bird and mammal heart.
- Identify the waves of a typical Lead II electrocardiogram.
Circulation Part 2 Heart Muscle Pumping
- Identify the blood flow pathway and the oxygenation status in each of its structures (the vena cava, heart chambers and valves, lungs, and aorta).
- Name the two general phases of the cardiac cycle.
- Identify the origin of the lub-dupp heart sounds.
- Define stroke volume (as it relates to end diastolic volume and end systolic volume) and cardiac output (as it relates to stroke volume and heart rate).
- Identify the changes in stroke volume according to the Frank-Starling law.
- Determine the change in cardiac output as a result of parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation.
Circulation Part 3 Flow and Blood Vessel Type
- Define flow, pressure, and resistance.
- Identify how factors such as viscosity, vessel length, and vessel radius affect flow, pressure, and resistance.
- Determine the relative pressure value in the main types of blood vessels.
- Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow.
- Identify the blood vessel with the slowest blood velocity.
- Identify the three main types of blood vessels.
- Identify the blood vessel associated with high resistance capability, the primary blood reservoir, site of diffusion, highest and lowest pressures, valves, elastic recoil, high capacitance (=compliance).
Circulation Part 4 Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins and Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure
- Define key terms such as vasoconstriction, vasodilation, lymph vessel, vein, venule, and ADH.
- Determine the local factors that affect arteriole smooth muscle.
- Identify the neurogenic and hormonal factors resulting in vasoconstriction or vasodilation.
- Determine the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway’s relationship to blood vessel diameter.
- Identify the major types of capillaries.
- Determine the mechanisms of molecule movement across the capillary wall.
- Determine how veins can have decent blood flow in spite of very low pressures.
- Identify the relationship of mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance.
- Determine how blood volume relates to blood pressure.
- Define the baroreceptor reflex and determine how it relates to the effects of gravity on the circulatory system.