Animal Physiology Lecture Objectives – Unit Three


Sensory Physiology Part 1

  1. Define key terms such as sensation, generator potential, receptor potential, stimulus transduction and projection, adaptation, and convergence.
  2. Identify factors that influence the size of a receptor potential.
  3. Define receptive field and its measurement with two point discrimination.
  4. Define lateral inhibition as it pertains to sensory physiology.

Sensory Physiology Part 2

  1. Determine light properties in terms of electromagnetic waves, focal point, and refraction.
  2. Identify different eye arrangements in different animals.
  3. Identify the receptors involved in vision and the following features of the eye and retina:  and the following eye features: cornea, lens, iris, pupil, retina, optic nerve, macula lutea, fovea centralis, pigmented layer, and optic disk.
  4. Distinguish the effect of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic stimulation on the size of the pupil.
  5. Identify the two main components of rhodopsin and the vitamin needed for its synthesis.
  6. Determine the resting membrane potential in the rod when it’s dark.
  7. Identify the molecular changes in rhodopsin, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells when exposed to light.
  8. Distinguish the level of convergence and visual acuity when following the rod pathway and the cone pathway.
  9. Define bleaching of the rods.
  10. Identify the characteristics of rods and cones, including their locations on the retina, sensitivity to light, and numbers.

Sensory Physiology Part 3

  1. Define key terms such as mechanoreception, soundwave, otolith, and statocyst.
  2. Determine how mechanoreceptors lead to an action potential in a sensory neuron.
  3. Distinguish the parts of the hair receptor, including the kinocilium and stereocilia.
  4. Determine the sound wave size and frequencies for different pitches and volumes of sound.
  5. Define these structures of hearing: external ear, middle ear, inner ear, ear canal, tympanic membrane, auditory tube, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, round window, scala tympani, scala vestibuli, basilar membrane, spiral organ (= organ of Corti), cochlea and cochlear duct.
  6. Distinguish perilymph from endolymph.
  7. Determine the parts of the cochlear duct that respond to differing sound wave frequencies, based on the length of the hair cells.
  8. Define these structures of equilibrium: vestibule, utricle, saccule, semicircular canal, semicircular duct.
  9. Identify the receptors for head position, linear acceleration and deceleration, and rotational acceleration and deceleration.

Circulation Part 1: Heart

  1. Identify similarities and differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle.
  2. Define intercalated disk=disc.
  3. Identify the location and role of the SA node.
  4. Define pacemaker potential and cardiac action potential.
  5. Identify the pathway of electrical conduction throughout the heart.
  6. Identify functions of circulatory systems.
  7. Distinguish an open from a closed circulatory pathway.
  8. Identify the four chambers of the bird and mammal heart.
  9. Identify the waves of a typical Lead II electrocardiogram.

Circulation Part 2 Heart Muscle Pumping

  1. Identify the blood flow pathway and the oxygenation status in each of its structures (the vena cava, heart chambers and valves, lungs, and aorta).
  2. Name the two general phases of the cardiac cycle.
  3. Identify the origin of the lub-dupp heart sounds.
  4. Define stroke volume (as it relates to end diastolic volume and end systolic volume) and cardiac output (as it relates to stroke volume and heart rate).
  5. Identify the changes in stroke volume according to the Frank-Starling law.
  6. Determine the change in cardiac output as a result of parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation.

Circulation Part 3 Flow and Blood Vessel Type

  1. Define flow, pressure, and resistance.
  2. Identify how factors such as viscosity, vessel length, and vessel radius affect flow, pressure, and resistance.
  3. Determine the relative pressure value in the main types of blood vessels.
  4. Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flow.
  5. Identify the blood vessel with the slowest blood velocity.
  6. Identify the three main types of blood vessels.
  7. Identify the blood vessel associated with high resistance capability, the primary blood reservoir, site of diffusion, highest and lowest pressures, valves, elastic recoil, high capacitance (=compliance).

Circulation Part 4 Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins and Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure

  1. Define key terms such as vasoconstriction, vasodilation, lymph vessel, vein, venule, and ADH.
  2. Determine the local factors that affect arteriole smooth muscle.
  3. Identify the neurogenic and hormonal factors resulting in vasoconstriction or vasodilation.
  4. Determine the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway’s relationship to blood vessel diameter.
  5. Identify the major types of capillaries.
  6. Determine the mechanisms of molecule movement across the capillary wall.
  7. Determine how veins can have decent blood flow in spite of very low pressures.
  8. Identify the relationship of mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance.
  9. Determine how blood volume relates to blood pressure.
  10. Define the baroreceptor reflex and determine how it relates to the effects of gravity on the circulatory system.