Objectives-3, BIO 2320, Digestive


1. Define digestion, alimentary, and gastrointestinal tract.

2. Briefly describe the overall 5 steps of the digestive process.

3. List the organs of the GI tract.

4. List the digestive accessory organs.

5. Describe the 4 layers of the GI tract microstructure.

6. Define parietal and visceral peritoneum, and peritoneal cavity.

7. List and describe the location of the 5 peritoneal folds.

8. Describe the boundaries of the oral cavity.

9. Describe the labial frenulum, lingual frenulum, bolus, and papillae.

10. Describe the tissue that comprises the tongue.

11. Describe why food needs to be in aqueous form for taste.

12. Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands.

13. Describe the function, composition, and secretion control of saliva.

14. Define gingiva.

15. Describe the general structure of a tooth (cementum, enamel, pulp cavity, dentin, crown, root, neck, apical foramen, periodontal ligament).

16. Name the hardest substance of the tooth.

17. Define the directional terms: Labial, buccal, lingual, palatal, and occlusal.

18. How many temporary and how many adult teeth in a normal person.?

19. Describe ingestion, mastication, and deglutition.

20. Define pharynx, esophageal hiatus, peristalsis, and esophageal sphincters.

21. Describe the function of the esophagus.

22. Describe the 4 areas and 2 curves of the stomach.

23. Describe the location of the pyloric sphincter.

24. Name the substances that comprise gastric juice; name the cells that produce them.

25. Name the hormone made by gastric cells.

26. Define chyme.

27. Describe the mechanism of gastric motility.

28. Describe the stimulatory controls of gastric motility.

29. Describe the inhibitory controls of gastric motility.

30. Describe the function of gastric mucus, hydrochloric acid, and pepsinogen.

31. Describe the stimulatory mechanisms of gastric secretions.

32. Describe the inhibitory controls of gastric secretions.

33. Describe any absorption that occurs from the stomach.

34. Describe the function of gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide.

35. Describe the location of the pancreas and pancreatic duct.

36. Describe the substances made by pancreatic islet cells.

37. Name the cells that make pancreatic juice.

38. Describe the composition of pancreatic juice.

39. Describe the function of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic amylase, and pancreatic lipase.

40. Describe the neural and hormonal controls of pancreatic secretions.

41. Define hepatocyte.

42. Describe the course of the common bile duct.

43. Name the cells that make bile.

44. Describe the function of the gall bladder.

45. Describe the composition of bile.

46. Describe the purpose of bile salts and explain what is meant by enterohepatic circulation.

47. Describe some mechanisms to stimulate the rate of bile secretion.

48. Briefly, list some functions of the liver.

49. Name the 3 segments of the small intestine.

50. Define villi, microvilli, and duodenal (Brunner’s) glands.

51. Define lacteal.

52. Describe segmentation and peristalsis.

53. Define absorption. Where does 90% of the absorption occur?

54. Describe the absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, water and electrolytes in the intestine.

55. Define micelle and chylomicron.

56. Describe the various anatomical regions of the large intestine.

57. Define haustra and taeniae coli.

58. Describe the gastroileal reflex, haustral churning, mass peristalsis, and the defecation reflex.

59. Explain why defecation can be voluntarily controlled.

60. Define feces.

61. Describe the basic functions of the large intestine.

62. Describe the products of goblet cells.