Outline-4, BIO 2320, Female Reproductive System


A. Ovaries

1. Ligaments

a. Ovarian [ovary-uterus]

b. Suspensory [ovary-body wall]

c. Mesovarium [ovary-broad ligament]

B. Oogenesis

1. Oogonia [mitosis…]

2. Primary oocyte [2 million at birth and 300,000 by puberty, don’t finish meiosis I until puberty]

3. Secondary oocyte [at puberty, finish MI and halfway through MII]

4. Ovum

C. Ovarian cycle

1. Follicle– Ova plus surrounding fluid and cells in ovary

2. Development & Maturation

During first two weeks of monthly cycle, follicle mature, enlarges, moves towards ovary surface

3. Ovulation

About day 14 of monthly cycle, secondary oocyte is discharged from ovary, follicle cells remain behind in ovary

4. Corpus luteum

Follicle cells after ovulation, endocrine

5. Menopause

Depletion of follicles

D. Hormonal control

1. GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone, stimulates pituitary gland

2. Estrogen

Made by follicle cells, results in secondary sex characteristics, high levels can stimulate GnRH release, results in endometrium thickening

3. FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone causes development and maturation of follicle

4. LH

Luteinizing Hormone results in ovulation

5. Estrogen & Progesterone

Made by follicle cells after ovulation which inhibits GnRH release, results in very thick endometrium

E. Oviduct = Uterine tube = Fallopian tube

1. Infundibulum

Widened end near ovary

2. Fimbriae

Finger-like projections on infundibulum

F. Uterus(metr-)

1. Cervix


2. Broad ligament

Uterus to body wall

3. Perimetrium = Serosa

4. Myometrium

Very thick smooth muscle

5. Endometrium

Inner layer, shed in menses

G. Menstrual cycle

1. Endometrium, Menses

2. Hormones, GnRH, FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone

Female ovarian and menstrual cycle from day 1 to 10 showing low hormones at day 1 and a positive feedback loop increasing hormones until day 10

Female ovarian and menstrual cycle from day 10 to 14 showing a surge of LH by day 14 resulting in ovulation

Female ovarian and menstrual cycle from day 14 to 28, a cycle of shutting down all of the hormones and the presence of progesterone post-ovulation

3. Puberty

a. Menarche

Marks puberty by first menstrual cycle

b. Physical signs

c. Hormones

H. Vagina

1. Fornix

Superior, surrounds cervix

2. Hymen

Inferior, thin

3. pH


I. Vulva

1. Mons pubis

Pubic hair region over symphysis pubis

2. Labia majora

Lateral skin folds

3. Labia minora

Mucous membrane inner folds

4. Clitoris

Erectile tissue at anterior junction of labia minora, homologous to penis

5. Vestibule [glands present]

Between labia minora

6. Urethral & vaginal orifice

Within vestibule

J. Mammary glands

1. Lobes

2. Lobules

3. Lactiferous sinus is widened region

4. Lactiferous ducts

5. Nipple

6. Lactation (milk secretion)

a. Prolactin

Results in milk production

b. Human Placental Lactogen

Prepares mammary glands, made by placenta

c. Oxytocin

Milk let-down

K. Female Sexual Responses

Neural pathways similar to male, but no ejaculation

Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte video

Hormonal Control of Menstrual Cycle video