Objectives-1, BIO 3220, Skull



1. Explain cephalization.

2. Describe the neurocranium. What is its function.

3. Describe the chondrocranium. Describe the two cartilages that contribute to it and the formation of the ethmoid and basal plates.

4. Name the sense capsules that contribute to the braincase.

5. Define occipital condyle and foramen magnum.

6. Name the four ossification centers of the neurocranium. Approximate the location of these centers. {See Skull Handout}

7. Describe the dermatocranium and its origin. Name the four major categories of dermatocranium bones. Identify prominent bones in these categories and approximate their locations. {See Skull Handout}

8. Describe the splanchnocranium.

9. List the four main portions of a typical visceral arch. Name the portion which may serve as a mid-ventral link of right and left arch.

10. Discuss the evolutionary trends of visceral arches – including mandibular arch and hyoid arch.

11. Describe the head [neurocranium, splanchnocranium and dermatocranium] of jawless vertebrates.

12. Describe the head [as above] of placoderms.

13. Address the jaw suspension of placoderms.

14. Address the jaw suspension of cartilaginous fish.

15. Describe the head of cartilaginous fish.

16. Describe the head of bony fish.

17. Describe the head of amphibians.

18. Examine the jaw suspension of tetrapods.

19. Describe the head of reptiles.

20. Explain how anapsid, synapsid, euryapsid, and diapsids differ. Explain the advantage of temporal fossae\fenestrae.

21. Characterize a secondary palate. List any advantages it provides.

22. Define cranial kinesis.

23. How do Therapsid heads differ from other reptiles? Why are these changes significant?

24. Describe the head of birds. Categorize it according to the number of temporal fossae.

25. Name the bones of the beak.

26. Describe the head of mammals.

27. Identify any unique changes to the mammalian skull.

28. Describe the articulation between the upper and lower jaws in mammals.

29. Name the sole mammalian lower jaw bone.

30. Categorize the mammalian skull according to the temporal fossae.

31. Define suture, fontanel, paranasal sinus, conchae, turbinate, and tympanic bulla.

32. Trace the evolution of the visceral arches and their derivatives {See handout}.

33. Define columella, stapes, malleus, incus, larynx, and hyoid apparatus.

34. Discuss some evolutionary trends of the skull.

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