- Define key terms such as neurons, neuroglia, polarized, depolarized, repolarized, hyperpolarized, local potential, graded potential, action potential, threshold, saltatory conduction, absolute refractory period and relative refractory period.
- Distinguish the parts of a typical neuron.
- Identify the cells responsible for axon regeneration.
- Identify which cells have resting membrane potentials, graded potentials and action potentials.
- Identify an approximate value of a resting membrane potential in millivolts.
- Identify the color of myelinated and non-myelinated axons.
- Define key terms such as neurotransmitter, synapse, reciprocal and rectifying synapse, presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, synaptic cleft and synaptic vesicle, end plate potential, EPSP, IPSP, and presynaptic inhibition/facilitation.
- Identify the role of calcium in synaptic transmission.
- Identify the change in the motor end plate or the muscle cell following acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction.
- Determine the fate of acetylcholine and calcium following an end plate potential.
- Define spatial and temporal summation as they relate to neural integration.
- Explain how a poison/medication affects synaptic transmission and therefore affects the body.
Functional Organization of Nervous System
- Define key nervous system terms such as: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, afferent, efferent, centralization, cephalization, cholinergic, adrenergic, somatic, visceral, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic/sympathetic).
- Locate nuclei and ganglia as they relate to the nerve cell body.
- Identify the substance, or lack thereof, causing white and gray matter.
- Identify the neurons in the somatic efferent and autonomic portions of the nervous system.
- Identify the receptors for acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the A.N.S.
- Identify the effects of the drug atropine.
- Determine the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation to these organs: heart, lungs, digestion, pupil, sweat glands, adrenal medulla, cutaneous blood vessels, abdominal blood vessels, skeletal muscle blood vessels, bladder.
Muscle Part 1
- Define key terms like tendon, myofiber, myofibril, sarcomere, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, T tubule, cross bridge, power stroke, and myofilament.
- Identify the muscles that are striated and those that are not.
- Identify the overall functions of skeletal muscle.
- Distinguish actin, myosin, tropomyosin and troponin.
- Identify the steps of the sliding filament mechanism.
- Identify the roles that ATP plays in both contraction and relaxation.
- Identify the main regulator of muscle contraction.
- Identify the cause of muscle fatigue. Determine the restorative processes (i.e. debts) following strenuous exercise.
- Distinguish slow twitch from fast twitch muscle fibers.
Muscle Part 2
- Define key terms such as isometric and isotonic contractions, muscle twitch, motor unit, and tension and load as they relate to muscle shortening.
- Identify the three characteristic phases of a muscle twitch.
- Distinguish the ability to have maximal contraction as the initial muscle fiber length changes.
- Distinguish the speed changes of an isotonic contraction as the weight of the load changes.
- Define temporal summation= wave summation, incomplete tetanus, and complete tetanus.
- Define multiple motor unit summation= spatial summation = recruitment, treppe, asynchronous motor unit summation and muscle tone.
Muscle Part 3
- Define key terms such as calmodulin and neurogenic and myogenic as they relate to smooth muscle.
- Distinguish smooth muscle from skeletal muscle in terms of control (voluntary or involuntary), microscopic appearance (striated or not), depolarization, and location in the body.
- Identify the shape of smooth muscle cells.
- Identify the arrangement of the actin and myosin in smooth muscle.
- Identify the ion that is the key regulator of smooth muscle contraction.
- Identify factors that can change the resting membrane potential in smooth muscle.
- Identify the relationship between action potentials and smooth muscle contraction.
- Identify the enzyme responsible for myosin head phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.