Animal Physiology Lecture Objectives – Unit Two


Neural Function

  1. Define key terms such as neurons, neuroglia, polarized, depolarized, repolarized, hyperpolarized, local potential, graded potential, action potential, threshold, saltatory conduction, absolute refractory period and relative refractory period.
  2. Distinguish the parts of a typical neuron.
  3. Identify the cells responsible for axon regeneration.
  4. Identify which cells have resting membrane potentials, graded potentials and action potentials.
  5. Identify an approximate value of a resting membrane potential in millivolts.
  6. Identify the color of myelinated and non-myelinated axons.

Synaptic Transmission

  1. Define key terms such as neurotransmitter, synapse, reciprocal and rectifying synapse, presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, synaptic cleft and synaptic vesicle, end plate potential, EPSP, IPSP, and presynaptic inhibition/facilitation.
  2. Identify the role of calcium in synaptic transmission.
  3. Identify the change in the motor end plate or the muscle cell following acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction.
  4. Determine the fate of acetylcholine and calcium following an end plate potential.
  5. Define spatial and temporal summation as they relate to neural integration.
  6. Explain how a poison/medication affects synaptic transmission and therefore affects the body.

Functional Organization of Nervous System

  1. Define key nervous system terms such as: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, afferent, efferent, centralization, cephalization, cholinergic, adrenergic, somatic, visceral, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic/sympathetic).
  2. Locate nuclei and ganglia as they relate to the nerve cell body.
  3. Identify the substance, or lack thereof, causing white and gray matter.
  4. Identify the neurons in the somatic efferent and autonomic portions of the nervous system.
  5. Identify the receptors for acetylcholine and norepinephrine in the A.N.S.
  6. Identify the effects of the drug atropine.
  7. Determine the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation to these organs: heart, lungs, digestion, pupil, sweat glands, adrenal medulla, cutaneous blood vessels, abdominal blood vessels, skeletal muscle blood vessels, bladder.

Muscle Part 1

  1. Define key terms like tendon, myofiber, myofibril, sarcomere, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, T tubule, cross bridge, power stroke, and myofilament.
  2. Identify the muscles that are striated and those that are not.
  3. Identify the overall functions of skeletal muscle.
  4. Distinguish actin, myosin, tropomyosin and troponin.
  5. Identify the steps of the sliding filament mechanism.
  6. Identify the roles that ATP plays in both contraction and relaxation.
  7. Identify the main regulator of muscle contraction.
  8. Identify the cause of muscle fatigue. Determine the restorative processes (i.e. debts) following strenuous exercise.
  9. Distinguish slow twitch from fast twitch muscle fibers.

Muscle Part 2

  1. Define key terms such as isometric and isotonic contractions, muscle twitch, motor unit, and tension and load as they relate to muscle shortening.
  2. Identify the three characteristic phases of a muscle twitch.
  3. Distinguish the ability to have maximal contraction as the initial muscle fiber length changes.
  4. Distinguish the speed changes of an isotonic contraction as the weight of the load changes.
  5. Define temporal summation= wave summation, incomplete tetanus, and complete tetanus.
  6. Define multiple motor unit summation= spatial summation = recruitment, treppe, asynchronous motor unit summation and muscle tone.

Muscle Part 3

  1. Define key terms such as calmodulin and neurogenic and myogenic as they relate to smooth muscle.
  2. Distinguish smooth muscle from skeletal muscle in terms of control (voluntary or involuntary), microscopic appearance (striated or not), depolarization, and location in the body.
  3. Identify the shape of smooth muscle cells.
  4. Identify the arrangement of the actin and myosin in smooth muscle.
  5. Identify the ion that is the key regulator of smooth muscle contraction.
  6. Identify factors that can change the resting membrane potential in smooth muscle.
  7. Identify the relationship between action potentials and smooth muscle contraction.
  8. Identify the enzyme responsible for myosin head phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.

Here is a link to the Objectives Answers for Unit 2