Objectives-1, BIO 3220 Axial Skeleton


1. Explain the importance of learning about the skeleton.

2. Name the hard tissues. Review their embryologic origins.

3. List the constituents of bone.

4. Compare compact, spongy, dentin, acellular, membrane, dermal and replacement bones.

5. Compare hyaline, fibrous, elastic and calcified cartilages.

6. Identify the axial and appendicular skeletons.

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1. Discuss the overall function of vertebrae.

2. Describe the structure of a typical vertebra, including the following: centrum, neural arch, neural spine, hemal arch, hemal spine, chevron bone, neural (vertebral) canal, diapophyses, zygapophyses, prezygapophyses, and postzygapophyses.

3. List the four main types of intercentra articulations.

4. Address the development of vertebra. What is the fate of the notochord?

5. Define diplospondyly.

6. Describe the vertebral column of advanced fish – include regional differentiation and the craniovertebral joint.

7. Explain the changes in the vertebrae necessary for adaptation to terrestrial life.

8. Discuss the phylogeny of tetrapod vertebrae based on intercentrum (=hypocentrum) and pleurocentrum.

9. Describe articulations of amphibian vertebrae.

10. Identify the regions of vertebrae in amphibians. What is a urostyle?

11. Characterize reptilian vertebrae – include regional differentiation. Explain how their cervical and sacral vertebrae differ from those of amphibians.

12. Define autotomy.

13. Describe bird vertebrae – include regional differentiation, heterocelous, synsacrum and pygostyle.

14. Characterize mammalian vertebrae. What are intervertebral discs; what is their composition?

15. Compare the craniovertebral joint in regards to structure and physiology amongst the vertebrate classes.

16. Discuss evolutionary trends of vertebrae.

17. Discuss the function of ribs.

18. Theorize the phylogenetic origin of ribs.

19. Compare dorsal and ventral ribs.

20. Contrast monocipital and bicipital ribs. Define tuberculum and capitulum.

21. Compare costal and sternal ribs and costal cartilage.

22. Describe the ribs in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

23. Define uncinate process, true rib, false rib and floating rib.

24. Name the vertebrates that possess a sternum.

25. Define carina, keel, and xiphoid process.

26. Compare and contrast the sternum amongst the vertebrate classes.

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