C. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
1. Describe the overall function of the endocrine system.
2. Contrast endocrine and exocrine glands.
3. Define hormone and target cell.
4. Describe the structure and transport mechanisms of hormones.
5. Explain how a hormone affects the activity of target cells.
6. Define hypophysis.
7. Identify the location of the pituitary gland.
8. Describe the 2 lobes of the pituitary gland; include which hormones are released by each lobe and their function.
9. Define endorphin.
10. Describe the controls of the pituitary gland.
11. Explain why the posterior pituitary is not a TRUE endocrine gland.
12. Describe the location and histology of the thyroid gland.
13. Name and describe the formation and function of thyroid hormones.
14. Describe how thyroid hormones are transported in the bloodstream.
15. Describe the controls over thyroid hormone synthesis and release.
16. Name the gland and cells that make calcitonin.
17. Describe the function and control of calcitonin.
18. Describe the location of the parathyroid gland and the function of its hormone and the controls of its release.
19. Describe the location and the 2 portions of the adrenal gland.
20. Name the 2 hormones made by the adrenal medulla and describe their functions and the controls of their release.
21. Name the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex. Name and describe the effects of the hormones made by each layer. Describe the controls of their release.
22. Define islets of langerhans, pancreatic islets, and chromaffin cells.
23. Name the organ that has both exocrine and endocrine functions.
24. Describe the location and structure of the pancreas.
25. Name the cells that make insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Describe their effects.
26. Describe the controls of insulin and glucagon release.
27. Name the male and female gonads and briefly describe their endocrine roles.
28. Describe the location and function of the pineal gland.
29. Name the gland that is replaced by connective tissue and fat in adults. Briefly describe its location and function.
30. Describe the structure and function of prostaglandins.