Objectives-2, BIO 2320, Blood Vessels


1. Contrast arteries, veins, capillaries, arterioles, and venules.

2. Name the 3 layers in the wall of an artery or vein.

3. Describe the wall and function of a capillary.

4. Describe the differences in blood velocity in large vs small blood vessels.

5. Explain what causes a pulse.

6. Define blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance.

7. Name some factors that effect resistance.

8. Name the vessel that is most important in determining resistance to blood flow.

9. Describe the relationship of blood flow to pressure and resistance.

10. Describe the relationship of mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance.

11. List the neural factors that influence arterial pressure and describe how they function.

12. Describe the effects of angiotensin, epinephrine, and ADH on arterial pressure.

13. Describe the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone interaction.

14. Describe how blood volume influences arterial pressure and describe the factors that influence blood volume.

15. Describe the measurement of blood pressure. What does systolic pressure correspond to? Diastolic pressure?

16. Define venous return and describe influencing factors.

17. Describe the movement of blood through veins.

18. Describe the effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system and what compensatory mechanisms exist to counteract these effects.

19. Describe the cardiovascular adjustments during exercise.

20 Trace the general path of blood through the heart chambers and valves, to the lungs, and back to the heart.

21. Explain the primary purpose of systemic circulation. Define systemic.

22. Systemic arteries arise from what main vessel?

23. Trace the general path of blood from the heart through the systemic circuit and back to the heart. Know the general areas these vessels serve Include the following vessels:


The ascending aorta emerges out of the left ventricle and makes a U-turn called the arch. The three branches from the arch are the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and the left sublcavian arteries. It then descends towards the abdomen.

1. Ascending aorta

2. Aortic arch

3. Brachiocephalic

4. Common carotid (R&L)

5. Subclavian (R&L)

6. Vertebral (R&L)

7. Basilar

8. Circle of Willis

Circle of Willis is a circular pattern ensuring blood flow to the brain. It comes from the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery, which is a joining of the two vertebral arteries.

9. External carotid (R&L)

10. Internal carotid (R&L)

11. Lingual (R&L)

12. Axillary (R&L)

13. Brachial (R&L)

14. Ulnar (R&L)

15. Radial (R&L)

Arteries below the diaphragm are based on the descending aorta. It ends by branching into the two common iliac arteries.

16. Descending aorta

17. Celiac

18. Hepatic

19. Left gastric

20. Splenic

21. Superior mesenteric

22. Suprarenal (R&L)

23. Renal (R&L)

24. Testicular (R&L)

25. Ovarian (R&L)

26. Inferior mesenteric

27. Lumbars

28. Common iliac (R&L)

29. Middle sacral

30. Internal iliac (R&L)

31. External iliac (R&L)

32. Femoral (R&L)

33. Popliteal (R&L)

34. Anterior & Posterior Tibial (R&L)


Veins above the diaphragm are based on the superior vena cava which is formed by the joining of the two brachiocephalic veins.

1. Superior vena cava

2. Inferior vena cava

3. Brachiocephalic (R&L)

4. Internal jugular (R&L)

5. External jugular (R&L)

6. Subclavian (R&L)

7. Axillary (R&L)

8. Cephalic (R&L)

9. Brachial (R&L)

10. Basilic (R&L)

11. Azygos

12. Hemiazygos

Veins below the diaphragm are based on the inferior vena cava which is formed from the joining of the two common iliac arteries.

13. Common iliac (R&L)

14. Hepatic

15. Hepatic portal

The hepatic portal vein takes digestive blood into the liver for filtering

16. Superior mesenteric

17. Pancreatic

18. Gastric

19. Inferior mesenteric

20. Splenic

21. Suprarenal (R&L)

22. Renal (R&L)

23. Ovarian (R&L)

24. Testicular (R&L)

25. Internal iliac (R&L)

26. External iliac (R&L)

27. Femoral (R&L)

28. Popliteal (R&L)

29. Anterior & Posterior Tibial (R&L)

30. Great saphenous (R&L)


24. Describe the purpose of the hepatic portal circulation.

25. Name the fetal blood vessel that contains the highest concentration of oxygen.

26. Trace the path of blood in the fetus from the right atrium to the placenta and back to the right atrium. Explain how the fetal lungs and liver are bypassed.

Fetal circulation has a bypass of the liver called the ductus venosus and two bypasses of the lungs called the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus