A. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM – HEART
1. Describe the location of the heart.
2. Name the membrane that surrounds the heart. What is its function?
3. Name the 3 layers of the heart wall.
4. Where might pericardial fluid be found?
5. Name the 4 heart chambers, and the septae and valves that separate them.
6. Define coronary sulcus, chordae tendineae, papillary muscle, and trabeculae carneae.
7. Trace the coronary circuit of blood flow.
8. Describe the cells comprising the myocardium. Name the structure between these cells and its primary purpose.
9. Explain why a refractory period is necessary following cardiac muscle cell excitation.
10. Name the source of energy for cardiac muscle.
11. Describe the excitation of cardiac muscle cells and where this occurs.
12. Describe the pathway for conduction of electrical impulses through the heart.
13. Define systole and diastole. Which heart chamber has the highest systolic pressure and why?
14. Describe and illustrate the pressure changes in the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta through one complete cardiac cycle.
15. Define cardiac output and cardiac reserve.
16. Describe the controls of heart rate and describe how heart rate relates to cardiac output.
17. Define stroke volume and describe how it relates to cardiac output.
18. Define end-diastolic volume and factors that influence it.
19. Define end-systolic volume and factors that influence it.
20. Describe the (Frank-)Starling law.
21. List some factors that influence cardiac function.
22. Describe the origin of the “lub-dup” sound as your heart beats.
23. Describe the basis for electrocardiography. What are leads?
24. Describe the waves of a normal ECG and what each wave represents.