Lab Objectives, BIO 2310, Fall 2015


Dr. Clare Hays – Instructor

[email protected]; 303-556-8485; SI 2032

FALL 2015


Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, 303-556-8485, e-mail – [email protected] , URL

  • REQUIRED: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, 12th Ed., Cat version, Elaine N. Marieb, R.N., Ph. D. Available at Auraria Book Center or at
  • BIO 2310 dissecting tools: scalpel with replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors.
  • Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request. Contact Dr. Hays if you have any health issues related to preservatives, including pregnancy.
  • Lab exams are NOT comprehensive.

MASTERINGAANDP.COM : Your Laboratory Manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab. Information about this website, , and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual. You will need to complete a registration process to use this site. Especially note the excellent PAL sections. This is also the location of the Physioex Skeletal Muscle Physiology exercise.

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should complete the corresponding review sheets located in the back of your labs. Although you will not be required to hand in these exercises, they help to emphasize key concepts and are invaluable in preparing for lab exams.


 Exercise 3: Review the use and care of the microscope.

Exercise 6: a) Know the four main tissue types by name. b) As an example of Connective Tissue, observe bone and hyaline cartilage.

Exercise 9 : AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:

Please refer to Table 8.1 as needed for bony features definitions

FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen (or notch), Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture,
TEMPORAL (2), Squamous suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External
auditory (=acoustic) meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal acoustic meatus, OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoid
suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital
crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures,
Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina (=canals), Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale,
Foramen lacerum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plate with Olfactory (=Cribriform) foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates).

MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle (=condylar process), Coronoid process,
Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar process, Mandibular symphysis,
MAXILLA (2), Alveolar process, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE
(2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Lacrimal fossa, NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR


Frontal sinus, Ethmoid sinuses, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus.

Observe fontanels on the fetal skeleton.


Exercise 9: AXIAL SKELETON – You are responsible for the following:

TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes,
Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes, Intervertebral foramina,
intervertebral discs, CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), Atlas, Axis, Odontoid process
(Dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (3-5 fused).

STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, RIBS, Head,
Tubercle, Costal cartilage.


PECTORAL GIRDLE: CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion (acromion process), Coracoid process,
Glenoid fossa [cavity], Spine, Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular

PECTORAL APPENDAGE: HUMERUS, Head, Shaft, Greater and lesser tubercles,
Intertubercular (bicipital) groove (=sulcus), Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum,
Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head,
Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon (process),
Semilunar (trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS
(I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).

PELVIC GIRDLE: OS COXA (Coxal bone), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest,
Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Posterior inferior spine,
Iliac fossa, Greater sciatic notch, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser sciatic notch, Ramus
PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Ramus, Acetabulum.

PELVIC APPENDAGE: FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral
and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea
aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial
malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).


Glance at Fig. 1.2, page 4, to understand anatomic terminology of the cat.

Exercise 12: Observe a slide of skeletal muscle tissue.

Exercise 1 in Cat Dissection: p. 705: There are enough cats so that every 4 people
may have one cat. The cats may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described in your manual, but only dissect one side of the cat, its left. (This way you will still have half
of a cat left for later labs.) Here are a couple of websites with nice photographs
of cat muscles:

You are responsible for the following:
Cutaneous maximus, Platysma, Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major,
Pectoralis minor, Pectoantebrachialis, Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External
oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.

Trapezius group, Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus
dorsi, Serratus ventralis (anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group.

Put your cat away as described by your instructor. Clean your work
area thoroughly.


-Your exam will begin at 1:30, because it takes your instructor an hour to set it up. The actual exam will take about 30-45 minutes. The breakdown will be 2 questions on histology, 8 on skull, 10 on axial and appendicular skeleton, 5 on cat muscles. Gloves will be provided, bring a probe if you wish.


Exercise 1 in Cat Dissection: You are responsible for the following:

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Triceps brachii (lateral,
medial, long head), Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis group,
Extensor digitorum communis, Extensor digitorum lateralis (not in humans), Extensor carpi ulnaris,
Biceps brachii, Epitrochlearis (not in humans), Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris
longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris.

Fascia lata, Sartorius, Tensor fasciae latae, Gluteus medius, Gluteus
maximus (small in cats), Caudofemoralis (not in humans), Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius,
Soleus, Peroneus (=Fibularis) muscles, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Quadriceps: – Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius – , Gracilis,
Adductor femoris (=Adductor magnus and brevis in humans), Adductor longus, Plantaris, Flexor digitorum longus, External intercostals, Internal intercostals (intercostals are not in lab manual dissection, but refer to page 210, Table 13.3 for human description).

Muscular Physiology: You will also be expected to know the three phases of
a muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation). See figure 14.3 in
your lab manual.

A 10 -point computer exercise is Physioex Exercise 2 in back of manual, the Physioex Skeletal Muscle Physiology Computer simulations, must be completed in the computer lab or at home. Instructions for the exercise may be found in your lab manual. You can find the exercise at Upon completion, complete the review sheet in your lab manual. 10 points are possible for complete and accurate completion of the review sheet. THE REVIEW SHEET IS DUE YOUR NEXT LAB PERIOD – SEPT 22, 24.


Exercise 15: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.

Exercise 17: Dissect the sheep brain as described starting on
p. 292. You are responsible for the following structures:

 Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres,
cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).

Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic
tracts, hypothalamus (infundibulum, mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor
nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve.

 Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third
ventricle, thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct,
fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.

Exercise 2 Cat Dissection: p. 723: Dissect your cat as described. Know all of
the nerves mentioned of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses: Musculocutaneous
nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve,
Sciatic nerve, Tibial nerve and Common peroneal (=Fibular) nerve.

Exercise 21: Complete Activities 1-9, but omit the “Corneal
Reflex” and “Salivary Reflex”.


Exercise 22: Complete the exercises on Two-Point Threshold, Testing
Tactile Localization, and Adaptation of Touch Receptors.

Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments, Activities 1-7.

Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in Activity 4, excluding audiometry.

Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Stimulating
Taste Buds, Effect of Olfactory Stimulation on (on Taste), The Importance of Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Demonstrating Olfactory


-Your exam will begin at 1:30, because it takes your instructor an hour to set it up. The actual exam will take about 30-45 minutes. The test will consist of 1 muscle physiology question, 5 cat muscles, 1 cat nerve, 6 brain questions, 5 reflex questions and 7 sensory questions. Gloves will be provided, bring a probe if you wish.