Lab Objectives for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Fall 2022 Held Virtually

Laboratory Objectives, BIO 3220, Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Fall 2022 Online Lab Schedule

Instructor:  Dr. C. Hays, Office:  Science 2032

REQUIRED: Comparative Anatomy Manual, of Vertebrate Dissection, 3rd Edition, Fishbeck & Sebastiani, Morton Publishing Company, 2015.  ISBN 978-1-61731-042-3

 

OPTIONAL:

Free Resource: Swislosky, E. & Roosa, K. (2017). Atlas of Comparative Anatomy. Lumen Learning. https://louis.oercommons.org/courses/atlas-of-comparative-vertebrate-anatomy/view

Dissection Techniques in Anatomy

Shark

Necturus

Cat

 

Grading Rubric for ALL Laboratory Assignments for a total of 40 points possible per Lab Assignment.

 

Criterion for Each of the 3 Assignments Full number of Points Mid-level Points, if applicable Zero Points
Cover Page

2 points possible

Includes name of course and assignment (E.g. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Lab Assignment 1, Date, Student Name.) Includes some, but not all of the required information Not included
Table of Contents is Included.

12 points possible

Comprehensive, in order of pages that follow and lab objectives, and accurate.  Page numbers included. Present but unorganized Not included or inaccurate
Pages are Numbered

2 points possible

All pages are numbered and correspond correctly to Table of Contents Most pages are numbered or mostly corresponds to Table of Contents No page numbering or no matching to Table of Contents
Resource List in APA format

2 points possible

2 References are included and in correct format 1 Reference listed, or references are incorrectly listed No references are included
Overall Assignment Format and Neatness

10 points possible

Only 1 document is uploaded to Canvas (or if file is too large, it can have “part 1, part 2, part 3”) with drawings in same order as Lab Objectives.  Entire assignment is neat and well-organized. Directions are followed and a high degree of effort is exhibited. Some, but not all, of the assignment directions are followed. Some of document is well-organized and neat.  Parts of the assignment appear rushed. A moderate amount of effort is apparent. Directions are not followed. Lack of neatness or detail prevent the reader from interpreting the drawings. Drawings or labels are unreadable. Little effort on the project is evident.
Illustrations indicate species, view, and anatomy category

12 points possible

These details are in each illustration.  For example: 1.Bony Fish Skeleton, Lateral View; 2.Cat Skeleton-Pectoral Girdle and Appendage, Left Arm, Anterior View; 3. Sheep Brain, Inferior View. Some of the required details are missing in some illustrations. No labeling of species, view or anatomy category indicated in the illustrations.

 

Grading Rubric for Requested Information from Laboratory Assignments IF Stated in Laboratory Objectives

 

Criterion Full number of Points Mid-level Points, if applicable Zero Points
Structure Labeling

1 point per structure possible

Labels are accurate and readable.   Label is inaccurate or unreadable.
Structure Coloring

1 point per structure possible

Color is used as requested. Coloring is neat and complete.   Color is not used as requested or is not complete or makes the drawing unreadable.
Individual Illustration Neatness

1 point per illustration possible

Care is taken to submit clear and complete illustrations.   Illustration is not complete OR appears rushed and sloppy.
Directional Terms if Required

1-2 points possible per illustration

Directional pairs of terms (e.g. cranial& caudal, proximal& distal, right& left, anterior& posterior) are correct and neat.   Directional term pairs are not included or incorrect or too sloppy to be readable.
Objective Questions, if Required

Total points vary

Answers are correct and readable. Part of the answer is correct, and part is not. Incorrect or missing answers, or unreadable.

 

THE PROCHORDATE, THE LAMPREY, INTEGUMENT

WEEK ONE(8/22-28) – THE PROCHORDATE, THE LAMPREY, INTEGUMENT

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

 Chapter 14

*1 point 1. What is the name of the larval form of the lamprey? 

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapter 5, 16, 24, 26, 35, 44, 53

*2 points 2. Define fissure, and foramen.

*2 points 3. What is the dental formula of the cat?

View this example of labeling and coloring before you start on your own illustrations

Sample Laboratory Objectives

Completed Sample Laboratory Assignment for BIO 3220  (Note:  Some of the illustrations I scanned and then inserted into the document and some of them I took cell phone pictures and sent to my computer via email and then inserted them into the document, just to illustrate that both methods work.  I also cut out some of the pictures and taped them to a separate page in order to include all labels neatly. Whenever there are synonyms indicated with equal signs below, you only need to include one of the terms in your assignment.)

Introduction: Read this chapter and review anatomical terminology on p.5.

 Chapter 3: Read this chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Amphioxus using the larvae illustration found on Canvas:

*14 points possible.  1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for figure being labeled (e.g. left lateral view of amphioxus) and 2 points for 2 pairs of directional terms. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1) Myomeres, 2) Notochord, 3) Nerve cord, 4) Pharynx with Pharyngeal slits, 5) Anus.

Chapter 14: Read this chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on a whole Lamprey Eel using the eel labeling illustration found on Canvas:

*16 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for figure being labeled (e.g. left lateral view of amphioxus) and 2 points for 2 pairs of directional terms. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1) Mouth (Buccal funnel), 2) Eye, 3) Dorsal fin, 4) Cloaca (or anus), 5) External gill slits, 6) Caudal fin.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on Ammocoetes larva using the larvae illustration found on Canvas:

*30 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for figure being labeled (e.g. left lateral view of amphioxus) and 2 points for 2 pairs of directional terms. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1) Oral hood (with tentacles or lobes), 2) Gill pouch,  3) Intestine, 4) Anus, 5) Liver, 6) Gall bladder, 7) Heart, 8) Brain, 9) Spinal cord, 10) Eye, 11) Notochord, 12) Dorsal fin, 13) Caudal fin.

Identify, Label, and Color the following on a cross section through the pharynx of Ammocoetes using the eel labeling illustration found on Canvas:

*12 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for figure being labeled (e.g. left lateral view of amphioxus) and 2 points for 2 pairs of directional terms. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1) Myomeres, 2) External gill slit, 3) Notochord, 4) Spinal cord.

Chapter 4: Read this chapter. Also see figures 4.2, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 24.6.

Sketch a simple picture of each of these types of scales: 

 *8 points possible. 2 points each for correct representation of shape of each labeled scale. (for each scale: 1 point shape, 1 point correct labeling)

1)Placoid, 2) Ganoid, 3) Ctenoid and 4) Cycloid scales.

Identify, Label, and Color the four labeled portions of mammalian skin using the skin labeling illustration found on Canvas:

Also see figures 52.2, 52.3, 52.4.

*11 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for figure being labeled (e.g. left lateral view of amphioxus) and 1 point for 1 pair of directional terms. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1) Epidermis, 2) Dermis, 3) Hair root, 4) Hair shaft.

THE SKELETON

WEEKS TWO-FIVE(8/29-9/25)– THE SKELETON

{Suggested timeline: 1.5 weeks for skull, .5 week for trunk (vertebrae, ribs, sternum), 1.5 weeks for girdles and limbs.}

SKULL

Chapter 16: Read this chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following structures on Squalus head skeleton using the “Squalus chondro- labeling” and “Squalus splanchno- labeling” illustrations:

CHONDROCRANIUM (Neurocranium):

*36 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point per picture for a total of 4 points for a pair of directional terms not already listed in the illustration. 1 point per picture for a total of 4 points for overall neatness of submission.

1)Rostrum, 2) Nasal or Olfactory capsule, 3) Preorbital process, 4) Postorbital process, 5) Precerebral cavity, 6)Rostral fenestrae, 7)Epiphyseal foramen, 8)Superficial ophthalmic foramina, 9)Foramen magnum, 10)Vagus foramen, 11)Glossopharyngeal foramen, 12)Basitrabecular process, 13)Optic foramen, 14)Basal plate.

SPLANCHNOCRANIUM (Visceral Skeleton):

*32 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point per picture for a total of 2 points for a pair of directional terms not already listed in the illustration. 1 point per picture for overall neatness of submission.

1)Seven visceral arches, 2)Five branchial arches, 3)Pharyngobranchial, 4)Epibranchial, 5)Ceratobranchial, 6)Hypobranchial, 7)Basibranchial, 8)Mandibular arch, 9)Palatoquadrate cartilage, 10)Meckel’s = Mandibular Cartilage, 11)Hyoid arch, 12)Hyomandibular cartilage, 13)Ceratohyal, 14)Basihyal.

Use handouts provided under Canvas Discussions, and Chapter 24: Read these items and Identify, Label, and Color the following on an Amia skull (or other bony fish)  using the bird/turtle illustration:

*8 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for a pair of directional terms not already listed in the illustration. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

DERMATOCRANIUM:

1)Orbit, 2)Maxilla. These are the same in Amia as in the Perch on page 203.

SPLANCHNOCRANIUM:

3)Quadrate.  Use the Amia handout for these.

Chapter 26: Read this chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on a Necturus skull (Chapter 26) using the Necturus skull labeling illustrations:

NEUROCRANIUM and DERMATOCRANIUM and SPLANCHNOCRANIUM:

*30 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point per picture for a total of 3 points for apair of directional terms not already listed in the illustration. 1 point per picture for overall neatness of submission.

1)Ethmoid plate, 2)Quadrate, 3)Exoccipital bone with its Occipital condyle, 4)Premaxilla, 5)Frontal, 6)Parietal, 7)Squamosal, 8)Parasphenoid, 9)Vomer, 10)Dentary, 11)Angular, 12)Splenial.

Use handouts provided in Canvas: Read these items and Identify, Label, and Color the following on an Chelydra skull using the bird/turtle illustration:

*16 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for a pair of directional terms not already listed in the illustration. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

DERMATOCRANIUM:

1)Orbits, 2)Premaxilla, 3)Maxilla, 4)Frontal, 5)Parietal, 6)Squamosal.

NEUROCRANIUM:

7)Supraoccipital.

Chapter 53: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on a cat skull using the cat skull and jaw illustrations:

*60 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for each of the 4 pictures for overall neatness of submission.

DERMATOCRANIUM and NEUROCRANIUM:

1)Premaxilla, 2)Maxilla, 3)Palatine, 4)Frontal, 5)Orbit, 6)Zygomatic (= Malar =Jugal),  7)Zygomatic arch, 8)Parietal, 9)Occipital, 10)Basioccipital, 11)Occipital condyle, 12)Foramen magnum, 13)Basisphenoid, 14)Presphenoid, 15)Nasal, 16)Optic foramen, 17)Orbital fissure, 18)Foramen rotundum, 19)Foramen ovale, 20)Anterior palatine foramen, 21)Jugular foramen, 22)External auditory meatus, 23)Tympanic bulla, 24)Mandible made of two Dentary bones, 25)Condyloid process, 26)Mental foramina, 27)Coronoid process, 28)Angular process.

 TRUNK

Chapter 16 (specifically Figure 16.13): Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color a cross section of a Squalus tail using the Squalus fins illustration.

*5 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1)Notochord remnant in centrum, 2)Caudal Blood Vessels in the Hemal arch.

Chapter 26:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color a Necturus trunk vertebra using the Necturus skull illustration. (Chapter 26):

*16 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for the illustration. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1)Transverse processes, 2)Vertebral canal, 3)Neural spine, 4)Cranial zygapophyses = Prezygapophyses, 5)Caudal zygapophyses = Postzygapophyses, 6)Vertebral body = Centrum, 7)Ribs.

Chapter 44:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following bird trunk features using the bird/turtle illustration: 

*10 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for a pair of directional terms for the illustration. 1 point for overall neatness of submission.

1)Cervical vertebrae, 2)Ribs, 3)Uncinate processes, 4)Pygostyle.

 Chapter 53:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following cat trunk features using the cat axial and cat jaw labeling illustrations:

*36 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point per picture with letter labeling for overall neatness of submission.

1)Cervical vertebrae, 2)Lumbar vertebrae, 3)Vertebral body = Centrum, 4)Neural canal = Vertebral canal, 5)Spinous process, 6)Pedicle, 7)Transverse foramen, 8)Pleurapophysis (type of transverse process), 9)Mammillary process, 10)Sacrum,  11) Axis, 12) Atlas. Rib: 13)Head = Capitulum, 14)Tuberculum, 15)Neck, 16)Body.

APPENDICULAR SKELETON – GIRDLES and LIMBS

 Chapter 16:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on the Squalus fin illustration:

*26 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for a pair of directional terms for each of the two fin illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the two fin illustrations.

Pectoral Girdle & Fin [include 1)pectoral girdle and fin in your labeling]: 2)Coracoid bar, 3)Scapular cartilage, 4)Suprascapular cartilage, 5)Basal Pterygiophores, 6)Radial Pterygiophores, 7)Ceratotrichia-Cartilaginous fish (or Lepidotrichia-Bony fish).

Pelvic Girdle & Fin [include 8)pelvic girdle and fin in your labeling]: 9)Puboischiadic bar, 10)Radial pterygiophores, 11)Ceratotrichia-Cartilaginous fish (or Lepidotrichia-Bony fish).

 Chapter 26:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following appendicular structures on the Necturus skull illustration:

*40 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for a pair of directional terms for each of the two illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the two  illustrations.

Pectoral Girdle & Appendage [include 1)pectoral girdle and appendage in your labeling]:2)Scapula, 3)Humerus, 4)Radius, 5)Ulna, 6)Carpals, 7)Metacarpals, 8)Phalanges.

Pelvic Girdle & Appendage [include 9)pelvic girdle and appendage in your labeling]: 10)Ilium, 11)Pubis, 12)Ischium, 13)Femur, 14)Tibia, 15)Fibula, 16)Tarsals, 17)Metatarsals, 18)Phalanges.

 Chapter 44:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on bird skeletons using the bird/turtle labeling illustration:

*25 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for overall neatness of submission.

Pectoral Girdle and Appendage: 1)Procoracoid = Anterior coracoid, 2)Clavicle, 3)Sternum, 4)Humerus, 5)Ulna,  6)Carpometacarpus, 7)Digit II (note, the most proximal is I and the longest is II).

Pelvic Girdle and Appendage: 8)Pubis, 9)Femur, 10)Tibiotarsus, 11)Tarsometatarsus, 12)Digit I.

 Chapter 53:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on cat skeletons using the cat pectoral and pelvic labeling illustrations:

*84 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2 sets of illustrations.

Pectoral Girdle and Appendage: 1)Scapula: 2)Glenoid fossa, 3)Scapular spine, 4)Infraspinous fossa, 5)Supraspinous fossa, 6)Acromion process, 7)Metacromion. 8)Humerus: 9)Lesser tuberosity (= tubercle), 10)Greater tuberosity (= tubercle), Condyles ->11)Trochlea and 12)Capitulum, 13)Shaft. 14)Radius: 15)Head, 16)Radial = Bicipital tuberosity, 17)Styloid process. 18)Ulna: 19)Olecranon,20) Semilunar notch, 21)Styloid process. 22)Carpal bones. 23)Metacarpals. 24)Phalanges with claws.

Pelvic Girdle and Appendage: 25)Os coxa = Innominate bone: 26)Ilium, 27)Ischium, 28)Pubis, 29)Acetabulum, 30)Obturator foramen. 31)Femur: 32)Head, 33)Greater trochanter, 34)Lateral and 35)Medial condyles. 36)Tibia: 37)Condyles, 36)Tibial Tuberosity, 39)Medial malleolus. 40)Fibula: 41)Lateral malleolus.

 DURING WEEK FIVE –SEPTEMBER 25 by 11:59 PM – Labeled and Colored Pictures Due; Answers to Selected Objectives Due.560 total points: 515 points drawings + 5 points answer to objectives, + 40 points per overall assignment rubric.)

MUSCLES

WEEKS SIX-EIGHT (9/26-10/16)– THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

{Suggested timeline: 1 week for shark and mud puppy muscles, 2 weeks labs for cat muscles and for review.}

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapter 6, 17, 27, 54:

*3 points (1 point per definition)1. Define belly, origin, insertion.

*14 points (2 points per definition) 2. Describe the following muscle actions: Flex, Extend, Abduct, Adduct, Protract, Retract, Rotate.

*4 points 3. Describe the location of hypobranchial muscles in the shark. (2 points) What does “branch-” mean? (2 points)

*11 points (1 point per definition)4. Define the following roots or terms:  “brachio-“, “coraco-“, “cleido-“, “sterno”, “carpi”, “rectus”, “oblique”, “inter-“, “levator”, “capitis”, and “genio-“.

*7 points (1 point per muscle)5. Which muscles comprise the quadriceps muscles? Which muscles comprise the hamstring muscles?

Chapter 17:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following muscles on Squalus as described in your lab manual using the shark labeling 1 and 2 illustrations:

*46 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the 4 muscle  illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 4  illustrations.

AXIAL MUSCLES: 1)Myomeres, 2)Myosepta, 3)Linea alba, 4)Horizontal septum, 5)Epaxial musculature, 6)Hypaxial musculature.

APPENDICULAR MUSCLES: 7)Extensors (=abductors) and 8)Flexors (=adductors) of Appendicular Fins.

BRANCHIOMERIC MUSCLES: 9)Adductor mandibulae, 10)Intermandibularis, 11)Levatorhyomandibulae, 12)Levator hyoideus,13) Interhyoideus,14)Cucullaris, 15)Dorsal and 16)Ventral superficial branchial constrictors of Visceral Arches III-VII.

HYPOBRANCHIAL MUSCLES: 17)Coracomandibularis, 18)Coracoarcual, 19)Coracohyoid.

Chapter 27:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color Necturus muscles as described in your lab manual using the Necturus lateral and dorsal/ventral muscle illustrations:

*70 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the 3 muscle illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 3 illustrations.

AXIAL MUSCLES: 1)Myomeres, 2)Myosepta, 3)Linea alba, 4)Horizontal septum, 5)Epaxial musculature exemplified by Dorsalis trunci, 6)Hypaxial musculature exemplified by Rectus abdominis, 7)External oblique, 8)Internal oblique, 9)Transversus abdominis.

HEAD MUSCLES (Hypobranchial & Branchiomeric): 10)Adductor mandibulae anterior, 11)Adductor mandibulae externus, 12)Branchiohyoideus, 13)Intermandibularis, 14)Interhyoideus,  15)Geniohyoideus, 16)Rectus cervicis.

APPENDICULAR MUSCLES: 17)Procoracohumeralis, 18)Supracoracoideus, 19)Pectoralis,  20)Cucullaris,21) Scapular deltoid (Dorsalis scapulae), 22)Latissimus dorsi, 23)Triceps brachii, 24)Coracobrachialis, 25)Humeroantebrachialis, 26)Puboischiofemoralis externus, 27)Puboischiotibialis, 28)Puboischiofemoralis internus, 29)Pubotibialis, 30)Iliotibialis, 31)Ilioextensorius, 32)Iliofibularis.

Chapter 54:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the cat muscles as described in your lab manual:

Here are a couple of websites with nice photographs of cat muscles:

https://homes.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/musc/muscular.htm

catdissection1

catdissection2

(Use the cat muscle labeling pictures on Canvas, including cat arm muscles medial and lateral, cat thigh muscles medial and lateral, cat muscles ventral and dorsal, cat neck muscles, cat lateral leg muscles.)

*160 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.   1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the twelve cat illustrations.  1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 12 cat muscle illustrations.  Note:  You may be able to see a muscle in more than one illustration.  You only need to label it once.

SUPERFICIAL THORACIC MUSCLES: 1)Pectoantebrachialis, 2)Pectoralis major, 3)Pectoralis minor, 4)Xiphihumeralis.

ABDOMINAL MUSCLES: 5)External oblique, 6)Internal oblique, 7)Transversus abdominis, 8)Rectus abdominis, 9)Linea alba.

DEEP THORACIC MUSCLES: 10)Serratusventralis, 11)External intercostal.

SUPERFICIAL BACK MUSCLES: 12)Clavotrapezius, 13&14)Trapezius (Acromio-, Spino-portions),15) Latissimus dorsi.

NECK MUSCLES: 16)Sternomastoid, 17)Sternohyoid, 18)Mylohyoid, 19)Geniohyoid.

DEEP NECK & BACK MUSCLES: 20)Rhomboideus capitis, 21)Rhomboideus cervicis & thoracis, 22)Splenius.

MUSCLES OF THE HEAD: 23)Masseter, 24)Temporalis, 25)Digastric.

SHOULDER MUSCLES: 26)Supraspinatus, 27)Infraspinatus, 28)Teres major, 29)Levator Scapulae Ventralis, 30)Acromiodeltoid, 31)Spinodeltoid, 32)Clavobrachialis ( = Clavodeltoid), 33)Subscapularis.

PECTORAL LIMB MUSCLES: 34)Biceps brachii, 35&36&37)Triceps brachii (Lateral, Long, Medial Heads), 38)Brachialis, 39)Brachioradialis, 40)Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, 41)Extensor digitorum communis, 42)Extensor digitorum lateralis, 43)Extensor carpi ulnaris, 44)Flexor carpi ulnaris, 45)Flexor digitorum superficialis ( = Palmaris longus), 46)Flexor carpi radialis, 47)Pronator teres.

THIGH  MUSCLES: 48)Sartorius, 49)Gracilis, 50)Biceps femoris, 51)Caudofemoralis, 52)Semitendinosus, 53)Semimembranosus, 54)Adductor femoris, 55)Adductor longus, 56)Pectineus, 57)Tensor fasciae latae, 58&59&60&61)Quadriceps femoris — Vastus lateralis, Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus intermedius (deep to rectus femoris but not in illustrations – include an idea of where it would be) .

SHANK MUSCLES: 62)Tibialis cranialis (= anterior), 63)Extensor digitorum longus, 64)Peroneus group, 65)Flexor digitorum longus, 66)Gastrocnemius.

HIP MUSCLES: 67)Gluteus maximus, 68)Gluteus medius.

DIGESTIVE & RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

WEEKS NINE-TEN(10/17-30)– DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapters 8, 19, 29, 56

*4 points 1.  Define digestion. (2 points) What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion? (2 points)

*2 points (1 point per structure) 2. Name two structures of the alimentary canal that exemplify the need of increased surface area.

*2 points (1 point per function) 3. Describe two functions of the liver.

*1 point 4. Name one reason why shark livers contain so much oil.

*1 point 5. Explain why the shark’s tongue is not a “true” tongue.

*2 points 6. Define sphincter.

*2 points 7. What is a spiracle?

*3 points (1 point each) 8. List the three parts of the mammalian small intestine.

*2 points 9. What is the function of the shark’s rectal gland?

*2 points 10.  Besides the obvious descriptive words, what is the difference between the hard palate and the soft palate?

Chapter 19:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label and Color the following on Squalus using the shark muscle 2 and shark digestive labeling illustrations:

*52 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure.  1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the 4 shark illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 4 shark illustrations.

1)Teeth, 2)Oral cavity, 3)Tongue, 4)Pharynx, 5)Esophagus with papillae, 6)Stomach, 7)Gastric rugae, 8)Pyloric region of stomach, 9)Valvular intestine, 10)Spiral valve, 11)Cloaca, 12)Rectal gland, 13)Liver, 14)Gall bladder, 15)Bile duct, 16)Pancreas, 17)Spleen, 18)Spiracle, 19)Internal gill slit, 20)Gill rakers, 21)Interbranchial septum, 22)Gill filaments ( = lamellae).

Chapter 29:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Necturus using the Necturus digestive and lateral muscles labeling illustrations:

*36 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the two illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2 Necturus illustrations.

1)Oral cavity, 2)Teeth, 3)Tongue, 4)Pharynx, 5)Esophagus, 6)Stomach, 7)Pyloric sphincter, 8)Small intestine, 9)Large intestine, 10)Cloaca, 11)Liver, 12)Gall bladder, 13)Pancreas, 14)Spleen, 15)External gills, 16)Lung.

Chapters 55 and 56:  Read these Chapters and Identify, Label and Color the following digestive and respiratory structures on the cat using the cat digestive labeling, cat respiratory labeling, cat stomach labeling, and cat neck labeling muscle/digestive illustrations:

*96 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the six illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 6 cat  illustrations.

1)Parotid salivary gland, 2)Parotid duct, 3)Mandibular salivary gland, 4)Sublingual salivary gland,5) Oral cavity, 6)Tongue, 7)Hard palate, 8)Soft palate, 9)Pharynx, 10)Esophagus, Stomach features: 11)Lesser curvature, 12)Greater curvature, 13)Fundus, 14)Body, 15)Pyloric region, 16)Pylorus sphincter,17) Cardia, 18)Gastric rugae. Small Intestine features: 19)Duodenum, 20)Jejunum, 21) Ileum.Large Intestine features: 22)Cecum, 23)Ascending colon, 24)Transverse colon, 25)Descending colon, 26)Rectum, 27)Anus.28)Liver, 29)Gall bladder, 30)Common bile duct, 31)Pancreas, 32)Spleen, 33)External nares, 34)Larynx, 35)Epiglottis, 36)Thyroid cartilage, 37)Cricoid cartilage, 38)Trachea, 39)Primary bronchi, 40)Lung, 41)Diaphragm, 42)Mesentery.

 DURING WEEK TEN–  OCTOBER 30 by 11:59 PM – Labeled and Colored Pictures of Muscles, Respiratory and Digestive are Due; Answers to Selected Objectives Due (560 total points: 460 points drawings + 60 points objectives+ 40 points overall rubric)

CIRCULATION

WEEKS ELEVEN-TWELVE  (10/31-11/13) – CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapter 11, 21, 58

*3 points 1. List the overall components of the circulatory system.

*4 points 2. Differentiate veins from arteries.

*2 points 3. Describe the primary function of the capillary.

*2 points 4. Variations of circulatory anatomy are common. Name the type of blood vessel that shows considerable anatomical variation within a species.

*5 points (2 points definition, 3 points sketch) 5. What is meant by a single pump circuit in the fish. Include a simple sketch with your answer.

*4 points (2 points per definition) 6. Define afferent and efferent.

*4 points 7. Describe a portal system. (2 points) The hepatic portal system carries blood between what organ(s)? (2 points)

*7 points (1 point per root) 8. Define the roots “lien-“, “hepat-“, “pulm-“, “lingu-“, “gastr-“, “costo-“, and “inter-“.

*8 points 9. Name the 4 heart chambers in a mammal. (4 points) Name the 4 heart valves. (4 points)

*9 points 10.  Trace the blood flow through the heart chambers in order, to and from the major blood vessels.  Include in your answer the four heart chambers, the precava, postcava, pulmonary veins, pulmonary trunk and aorta.

Chapter 21: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Squalus using the Squalus heart/pharynx/tail, abdominal arteries, veins 1 and 2 labeling illustrations:

Note: the following URL has good cat vessel and sheep heart pictures: https://homes.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/

*60 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for a pair of directional terms for each of the six illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 6 shark  illustrations.

1)Heart, 2)Sinus venosus, 3)Atrium, 4)Ventricle, 5)Conus arteriosus, 6)Ventral aorta, 7)Afferent branchial arteries, 8)Efferent branchial arteries, 9)Dorsal aorta,10)Paired dorsal aortae, 11)Coronary artery, 12)Subclavian artery, 13)Coeliac artery, 14)Anterior mesenteric artery, 15)Lienogastric (=Gastrosplenic) artery, 16)Posterior mesenteric artery, 17)Iliac artery, 18&19)Caudal artery and vein, 20)Hepatic portal vein, 21&22)Posterior cardinal sinus & veins, 23)Common cardinal veins, 24)Lateral abdominal vein.

 Chapter 58: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on a sheep heart and cat using the sheep/human heart and cat anterior/posterior artery and vein illustrations:

SHEEP HEART:

*38 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for a pair of directional terms for each of the two illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2heart illustrations.

1&2)Left and right atrium, 3&4)Left and right ventricles, 5)Pulmonary trunk, 6)Aorta, 7)Pulmonary veins, 8)Precava (= Anterior vena cava) , 9)Postcava (= Posterior vena cava),10) Interatrial septum, 11)Right atrioventricular valve = Tricuspid, 12)Left atrioventricular valve = Bicuspid, 13)Chordae tendineae, 14)Papillary muscles, 15)Interventricular septum, 16)Aortic semilunar valve, 17)Pulmonary semilunar valve.

CAT VESSELS:

*104 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the 4 illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 4cat illustrations.

1)Aorta, 2)Aortic arch, 3)Thoracic aorta, 4)Abdominal aorta, 5)Brachiocephalic artery, 6&7)Left & Right Subclavian arteries, 8)Common carotid arteries, 9)Vertebral artery, 10)Axillary artery, 11)Brachial artery, 12)External carotid artery, 13)Lingual artery, 14)Coeliac artery, 15)Hepatic artery, 16)Left gastric artery, 17)Splenic artery, 18)Cranial mesenteric artery, 19)Caudal mesenteric artery,20)Renal artery, 21)Internal spermatic/Ovarian artery, 22)Deep ilial circumflex artery, 23)External iliac artery, 24)Femoral artery, 25)Internal iliac artery.

26)External jugular vein, 27)Transverse jugular vein, 28)Internal jugular vein, 29)Cephalic vein, 30)Brachial vein, 31)Subclavian vein, 32)Axillary vein, 33)Brachiocephalic veins, 34)Vertebral vein, 35)Precava, (=Cranial vena cava or Anterior vena cava), 36)Azygous vein, 37)Caudal mesenteric vein, 38)Cranial mesenteric vein, 39)Gastrosplenic vein, 40)Hepatic portal vein, 41)External iliac vein, 42)Internal iliac vein, 43)Common iliac veins, 44)Postcava (=Caudal vena cava or Posterior vena cava),45)Renal vein, 46)Internal spermatic/Ovarian vein, 47)Deep ilial circumflex vein, 48)Femoral vein.

EXCRETION & REPRODUCTION

WEEK THIRTEEN(11/14-20) – UROGENITAL SYSTEM

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapter 9, 20, 30, 57

*2 points 1. Define retroperitoneal, as it relates to the kidney.

*2 points 2. Name the male copulatory organ in the dogfish shark.

*4 points 3. Define viviparous and give an example of a vertebrate that is viviparous.

*4 points 4. Define oviparous. (2 points) Give an example of a vertebrate that is oviparous. (2 points)

*4 points 5. Explain what the term “urogenital sinus” means in both males and females.

Chapter 20:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Squalus using the Squalus urogenital labeling illustration:

*22 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 2 points for labeling which is male and which is female. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2 shark illustrations.

1)Kidney, 2)Archinephric duct (easier to find in male, and is modified & known as Ductus deferens or Vas deferens in males), 3)Ovary, 4)Oviduct, 5)Uterus, 6)Cloaca, 7)Testis, 8)Seminal vesicle, 9)Clasper.

 Chapter 30:  Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Necturus using the Necturus urogenital labeling illustration:

*24 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 2 points for labeling which is male and which is female. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2 Necturus illustrations.

1)Kidneys, 2)Archinephric ducts (coiled in male & easier to see), 3)Cloaca, 4)Urinary bladder, 5)Ovaries, 6)Mesovarium, 7)Oviducts, 8)Ostium tubae, 9)Testes, 10)Mesorchium.

 Chapter 57: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label and Color the following on the cat using the male and female urogenital labeling illustrations:

Note: the following URL has good cat organ pictures: https://homes.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/

*38 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for 1 pair of directional terms for each of the 2 illustrations. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 2 cat illustrations.

1)Kidneys, 2)Renal cortex, 3)Renal medulla, 4)Renal pelvis, 5)Ureter, 6)Urinary Bladder, 7)Urethra, 8)Ovaries, 9)Oviduct (=Uterine tube), 10)Uterine horns, 11)Body of uterus, 12)Vagina, 13)Urogenital sinus (=urethra in male, but common opening for vagina & urethra in female), 14)Testis,  15)Spermatic cord containing the Ductus deferens,  16)Penis, 17)Prostate gland.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

WEEKS FOURTEEN-FIFTEEN (11/28-12/11) – NERVOUS SYSTEM

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES:

Chapter 12, 22, 59

*2 points 1. Classify the nervous system into two subdivisions.

*4 points 2. What type of information is carried by afferent neurons? By efferent neurons?

*2 points 3. Define mixed as it pertains to nerves.

*1point 4. Typically, anamniotes possess how many cranial nerves?

*12 points 5. Typically, amniotes possess 12 cranial nerves. Name them in order. (1 point each)

*2 points 6. Although it is considered a “nerve”, which cranial nerve is not really a nerve at all?

*8 points 7. Name the three regions of the embryonic brain. These three regions differentiate into what five regions during development.

*6 points 8. Name the three layers of mammalian meninges. (2 points per correct layer)

*6 points 9. Describe the function of the pineal gland/organ in lower and higher vertebrates.

*2 points 10.  Name the substance found in the brain ventricles.

Chapter 22: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on Squalus using the Squalus dorsal, ventral, sagittal brain illustrations:

*45 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 3 shark illustrations.

(Note:  Bold print indicates the regions of the brain and structures following the bold print are located within that region. Bold print terms must be included in your labeling/coloring.  You may add brackets or indicate regions with colors with an explanation in a legend.)

DORSAL STRUCTURES: 1)Telencephalon, 2)Olfactory bulb, 3)Olfactory tract, 4)Cerebral hemispheres, 5)Diencephalon, 6)Tela choroidea, 7)Mesencephalon, 8)Optic lobes, 9)Metencephalon, 10)Cerebellum, 11)Myelencephalon, 12)Medulla Oblongata.

VENTRAL STRUCTURES: 13)Pituitary gland (Hypophysis), 14)Optic nerve, 15)Optic chiasma.

SAGITTAL SECTION STRUCTURES: 16)Lateral ventricles (Ventricles I and II), 17)Third ventricle, 18)Fourth ventricle, 19)Optic ventricle, 20)Cerebellar ventricle, 21)Cerebral aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius).

 Chapter 59: Read this Chapter and Identify, Label, and Color the following on a mammalian (sheep) brain using the sheep brain dorsal and ventral/sagittal labeling illustrations: 

*80 points possible. 1 point for correct identification of each structure.  1 point for coloring all portions of each structure. 1 point for overall neatness of submission for each of the 4 sheep illustrations.

(Note:  Bold print indicates the regions of the brain and structures following the bold print are located within that region. Bold print terms must be included in your labeling/coloring.  You may add brackets or indicate regions with colors with an explanation in a legend.)

1)Telencephalon, 2)Cerebrum/Cerebral hemispheres, 3)Gyri, 4)Sulci, 5)Olfactory bulbs (part of Cr. N. I), 6)Diencephalon, 7)Hypothalamus (including 8)Optic chiasma, 9)Infundibulum, 10)Mammillary body), 11)Thalamus (Intermediate mass), 12)Optic nerves (Cr. N. II), 13)Optic tract, 14)Mesencephalon, 15)Corpora quadrigemina, 16)Superior colliculi, 17)Inferior colliculi, 18)Cerebral peduncle, 19)Oculomotor nerve (Cr. N. III), 20)Trochlear nerve (Cr. N. IV), 21)Metencephalon, 22)Pons, 23)Cerebellum, 24)Vermis, 25)Myelencephalon, 26)Medulla oblongata, 27)Trigeminal nerve (Cr. N. V), 28)Abducens nerve (Cr. N. VI), 29)Accessory (Cr. N. XI), 30)Hypoglossal nerve (Cr. N. XII).

SAGITTAL SECTION STRUCTURES: 31)Corpus collosum, 32)Fornix, 33)Lateral ventricle, 34)Third ventricle, 35)Midbrain (=cerebral) aqueduct, 36)Fourth ventricle, 37)Pineal body, 38)Arbor vitae.

DURING WEEK FIFTEEN– DECEMBER 11 by 11:59 PM – Labeled and Colored Pictures Due; Answers to Selected Objectives Due (560 total points: 411 points drawings + 109 points objectives + 40 points from overall rubric)