Lab Objectives, BIO 2320, Fall 2015


Dr. Clare Hays – Instructor

[email protected]; 303-556-8485; SI 2032


  • REQUIRED: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, 12th Edition, Elaine N. Marieb, R.N., Ph. D. Cat Version. Available at Auraria Book Center or at
  • Dissecting Tools: Available in bookstore, includes a scalpel with replaceable blades, a blunt probe, and small scissors.
  • Not required, but strongly recommended, is a lab coat or an old shirt to protect your clothing. Respirators with filters and eye goggles are available upon request. Contact Dr. Hays if you have any health issues related to preservatives, including pregnancy.
  • Lab exams are not comprehensive.

MASTERINGAANDP.COM: Your Laboratory Manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab. These resources and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual. Especially note the PAL section on cat anatomy at

Upon completion of lab exercises, you should complete the corresponding review sheets located in the back of your labs. Although you will not be required to hand in these exercises, they help to emphasize key concepts and are invaluable in preparing for lab exams.


 Exercise 1: Use your own body and the human torso models to complete this exercise.

Exercise 3 Cat Dissection: a) Obtain a cat and open the ventral body cavity as described on p. 729 or by your instructor.

b) Observe all of the endocrine glands on p. 731 in bold print.

c) Observe the pituitary gland on the preserved sheep brain. (p. 409)

d) Observe the pineal body on a sheep specimen. (p. 408, 409)

e) Put your cat away as described by your instructor. Clean your working area thoroughly.

f) Observe the microscopic anatomy on the Thyroid gland, Pancreas, Adrenal gland, Ovary, and Testis as described on

pp. 412-413,639, 654,657


Exercise 29: a) Observe the color and clarity of plasma after you conduct the hematocrit test (to be done later in this lab).

b) Observe one of each formed elements on a prepared human blood sample slide as described on p. 429-431.

c) Conduct a Hematocrit as described in Activity 4, using the microhematocrit reader card. Then, observe the color and clarity of plasma.

d) Determine the approximate hemoglobin concentration of the blood sample using the Tallquist method on p. 434 of Activity 5:

1. Remove a piece of test paper from a Tallquist booklet and place it on a flat surface before you.

2. Touch a drop of blood to the center of the paper.

3. After 15 seconds, compare your sample with the reference color scale. Results are in grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood.

e) Obtain an unknown blood sample and conduct the blood typing experiment to determine its ABO type (Activity 7).


 Exercise 30: a) Dissect the sheep heart as described. You are responsible for the following structures:

Mediastinum, pericardial sac, and pericardial cavity are best observed on your cat.

Visceral pericardium (epicardium), myocardium, endocardium, coronary blood vessels, left and right atria, left and right ventricles, auricles, pulmonary trunk, aorta, aortic semilunar valve, pulmonary veins, superior and inferior vena cavae, right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid), pulmonary semilunar valve, interventricular septum, papillary muscles, chordae tendineae, and left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid) are best observed on sheep hearts.

b) Observe the microscopic anatomy of cardiac muscle as described in your lab manual.

Note: the following URL has good sheep heart pictures:


 Exercise 4 Cat Dissection: a) Dissect your cat as described in Dissection Exercise 4 in back of lab manual. You are responsible for the following blood vessels:

Coronary arteries, superior vena cava (precava), inferior vena cava (postcava), pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta.

Azygos vein, adrenolumbar veins, renal veins, testicular or ovarian veins, iliolumbar veins, common iliac veins, internal iliac veins, external iliac veins, femoral vein, great saphenous vein, popliteal vein, hepatic veins.

Hepatic portal vein, gastrosplenic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein.

Aorta, celiac trunk, left gastric artery, hepatic artery, splenic artery, superior mesenteric artery, adrenolumbar arteries, renal arteries, testicular or ovarian arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, iliolumbar arteries, external iliac arteries, internal iliac arteries, femoral artery, saphenous artery, popliteal artery.

Brachiocephalic veins, external jugular veins, subclavian veins, axillary veins, brachial veins.

Right brachiocephalic artery, left subclavian artery, right subclavian artery, common carotid arteries, external carotid arteries, lingual arteries, vertebral arteries, axillary arteries, subscapular arteries, brachial arteries.

Note: the following URL has good cat vessel pictures:


Expect question distribution to be: 1/5 Endocrine, 1/5 Blood, 1/5 Heart, 2/5 Blood Vessels.


Exercise 31 and 33:


Exercise 31: Electrocardiography. Read about conduction, electrocardiography and standard leads in your laboratory manual. Perform an ECG using the Cardiocomp system.



1.With PC computer, McADDAM II and ECG cables connected, you may power up the PC and McADDAM II. The power indicator on the upper right hand corner of McADDAM II will light when the unit is turned on.

2.Launch the Cardiocomp program by clicking on the start menu and highlighting programs, Intelitool, and the select Cardiocomp1. Once loaded, pull down file menu, select new, and click ok.

3.The data collection will stop automatically after the time specified under File Setup. You may change the duration to 60 seconds for shorter collection period. If desired, the sample rate may be slowed down to 60 samples/second (measured in Hz) from Rate setting under File Setup.

4.Although all three leads should be examined during this exercise, start with Lead II. Select I, II, or III to change Leads under the Lead pull down menu.


1.Snap the three flat plate electrodes to the black, green and red cables.

2.Remove any jewelry on the wrists or ankles. Scrub the area thoroughly where the electrodes are to be applied {See locations on Lead 1,2,3 diagrams on computer.} Wipe the cleaned area with 70% alcohol on cotton.

3.Apply a liberal amount of electrode gel to the contact surface of the electrode.

4.Strap the electrode to the appropriate appendage (anywhere on the wrist and ankle) so the strap is snug but not too tight . Make sure the subject is comfortable and that their circulation is not restricted.

5.In addition to proper electrode application, signal clarity and stability can be enhanced by ensuring that the electrode cables remain stationary during data acquisition. Any wiggling of the wires relative to each other will introduce noise into the signal. Try to keep the wires being used in a group – taping them together often helps. Also, do not drape any of the wires, including the one which plugs into the computer, over a potential noise source such as a power cord. If the subject is in a supine position on a table, it will be easier to keep the wires stationary.

6.Remember to move cables to the appropriate appendage on the subject when changing Leads on the computer! The ground electrode must be used on the right leg at all times.


1.When the subject is ready, click “Start” to begin acquiring data. You can stop data acquisition at any time by clicking the mouse.

2.Examine and analyze your data. Identify the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave. Note any differences in the appearance of the various waves for the different Leads.

3.Select Analyze from under the Acquire pull down menu or by clicking the shortcut button located on the top-right of the Data Acquisition window. Time/Voltage allows you to measure time intervals and voltage differences between any two points in the data set. The numbers displayed in the “Difference” box represent the difference between two data points identified by data markers. Create data markers by placing arrow on desired data point on ECG and clicking mouse. If you hold the mouse button and drag the mouse after creating the first data marker, you can see the absolute voltage for any point in the window. Click “Reset” to erase data markers so that they can be positioned elsewhere in the data set. An automatic analysis may be used by selecting the on field to replace using data markers.

4.Print your data as desired.


1.The P wave represents atrial depolarization and the QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. The T wave represents ventricular repolarization. Atrial repolarization is not visible, as it occurs during the dominant QRS complex.

2.The P-Q interval is often called the P-R interval because the Q wave is usually small or absent. The normal P-Q interval time is 0.12-0.20 sec. The normal QRS complex duration is less than 0.10 sec, and the Q-T interval should be less than 0.38 sec. How do your results compare with these normal values?

3.Determine the ventricular rate by measuring the elapsed time between two R waves. Divide 60 by your time between R waves. by 60. The ventricular rate is in beats per minute.

Exercise 33: Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations


Complete Activities 1, 2 and 4.


Complete Activities 5-8 using a sphygmomanometer.



 Exercise 36: Examine a microscopic section of lung tissue as described on p. 548.

Exercise 6 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Cat Dissection Exercise 6. You are responsible for:

External nares, Oral cavity, oropharynx (oral pharynx), trachea, larynx, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, hyoid bone, vagus nerve, primary bronchi, pleural cavities, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, diaphragm, phrenic nerve, and lungs.

Exercise 7 Cat Dissection: Dissect your cat as described on Dissection Exercise 7 and exercise 38. You are responsible for:

Parotid salivary gland, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, tongue papillae, frenulum of tongue, esophagus, parietal peritoneum, liver, greater omentum, gall bladder, stomach [cardia, fundus, body, pylorus], greater and lesser curvature of stomach, lesser omentum, pancreas, spleen, common bile duct, small intestine [duodenum, jejunum, ileum], mesentery proper, cecum, colon [ascending, transverse, descending], rectum, anus, and visceral peritoneum.


 Exercise 40: a) Observe the following structures on a cat kidney: Renal capsule, cortex, medulla, medullary pyramids, and renal pelvis. (page 616)

b) Dissect your cat as described on Cat Dissection Exercise 8. You are responsible for: Kidneys, hilus, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Exercise 9 Cat Dissection: a) You are responsible for the anatomy of BOTH male and female cats. Dissect as described on Dissection Exercise 9 and know the following:

Penis, scrotum, testes, spermatic cord, ductus deferens (vas deferens), inguinal canal, prostate gland.

Uterus (uterine body & 2 uterine horns), uterine tube (fallopian tube), ovary, vagina, cervix, and vulva.

b) Observe the microscopic anatomy of the ovary and testis as described in Ch.43.

Note: the following URL has good cat organ pictures:


 Exercise 37:


Exercise 37: Respiratory System Physiology

1) Listen to respiratory sounds using a stethoscope as described in Activity 2.

2) Record respiratory volumes in Activity 3 using the Vernier Probes or wet spirometer.

Use the Vernier sensors or wet spirometer to record your respiratory volumes and capacities. Record your Respirations per minute, Tidal Volume, Minute Respiratory Volumen, , Expiratory Reserve Volume, Vital Capacity, and Inspiration Reserve Volume in Activity 3.

For Vernier Sensors: -Connect the Vernier Spirometer to the LabQuest interface, channel 1.

-Assemble the mouthpieces by placing the larger diameter side of a white bacterial filter to the “Inlet” side of the Spirometer. Attach a gray disposable mouthpiece to the other end of the bacterial filter. The assembly is similar to Figure 37A.12.

-Hold the Spirometer assembly in both hands and brace your arms against the table. Make sure that you hold the spirometer straight up and down and do not move it during data collection. Click on Sensor and choose “zero” for calibration. Note: The graph has “flow” on the Y axis as default. You can change this to volume by clicking on the Y axis and changing it to volume.

-Click the “play” button to begin data collection. Record the Tidal Volume, Inspiratory Reserve Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume and Vital Capacity as described in your lab manual in Activity 3. Inspiratory values go downward on the screen and expiratory values go up. Click on the peak of your waves and record the flow rate.

3) Complete Activity 6 without using a spirometer.


Exercise 41: a) Complete as much of the Urinalysis table on p.631 as possible using information derived from observation, reagent strips, and the refractometer. Perform these tests on your own urine specimen and for an unknown specimen provided. Interpret your results.


 Exercises 43& 44: Read these exercises. A film on reproduction will be viewed during your laboratory period.


Expect question distribution to be: 1/5 CV Physiology, 1/5 Respiratory/Digestive Anatomy, 1/5 Urinary/Reproductive Anatomy, 1/5 Respiratory Physiology, 1/5 Urinalysis and Reproduction Movie.